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Geological Evidences Of the Flood in Mongolia, China & SE Asia


Throughout the world there are water laid sediments that are younger in age than Pleistocene and older than Recent. These sediments are classified, herein, as Flood Deposits and relate to the Flood Age (see Figure 1). They consist of boulders, cobbles, gravels, sands, silts, and shales. They generally contain disarticulate remains of Pleistocene animal and plant life. Scattered artifacts of Man are often found within these sediments, but there is an absence of in situ sites of Man. The in situ sites of Man are often found below or above these water laid sediments. A mysterious reddish dye coloration often characterize these sediments in different parts of the world.

Our Flood Disaster scenario envisages three separate and distinct stages of the Flood. There are certain areas such as Calgary Alberta Canada where three distinct stages can be identified. See www.gira,ca. vol. 14, no. 2.

Figure 1: A Biblical and Geologically based chronology of the history of man.

Figure 1: A Biblical and Geologically based chronology of the history of man.


This paper will concentrate on evidences of Flood deposits throughout Mongolia, China and southeast Asia. These sediments are very similar to what is found throughout Europe, Eastern Europe, Russia, Africa and the America’s. A map of this region is shown on Figure 2.

Figure 2: Map of Mongolia, China, SE. Asia & neighboring countries

Figure 2: Map of Mongolia, China, SE. Asia & neighboring countries

A reconnaissance geological report by geologists Charles Berkey from Columbia University and Frederick Morris of the American Museum of Natural History relate interesting surface observations in their 1927 report, Geology of Mongolia.1 As they journeyed through Mongolia they noted recent changes in climate. They write, “We find many evidences of climatic changes: in the building and partial destruction of several alluvial fans along the Altai front; in the ancient beaches at Tsagan Nor; in the re-dissection of the gently sloping walls of hollows; in the renewed dissection of smooth surfaces which formerly supported a richer carpet of vegetation than at present; in renewed dissection of the Gobi erosion plane; in the carving of broad valleys by streams which have vanished and whose channels are now filled with wind blown sand; in the failure of rivers to reach their terminal lakes; in the shrinking of the meander-curves of rivers, as shown by the large abandoned meandering scarps; in the drying of salt lakes to form salt pans; in old drawings cut upon rocks by a vanished race, picturing animals that lived in woodlands, though the region is now bare of trees.” This quotation gives an excellent description of Flood Deposits and associated erosional dissection of the landscape by powerful tsunami tidal waves.

Berkey and Morris also mention the discoveries by French Archeologists Pere Emil Licent (1925) and Pere Teilhard de Chardin (1924) who had discovered Paleolithic and Neolithic cultures in the Gobi Desert area. They found primitive stone implements, not unlike those used by the Neanderthal Man of Europe and the bones of extinct Pleistocene animals in gravels which were laid down before the vast deposits of “loess” were formed in northern China.

According to my Webster’s College Dictionary2, loess is a loamy, usually yellowish and calcareous deposit formed by wind. It is common in the Mississippi Valley in the USA and in Europe and Asia. These loess deposits are believed to belong to the latest portion called stage three of the Flood Disaster Scenario.

Berkey and Morris imply that these loess deposits were deposited after the Pleistocene animals became extinct. They would thus be post Altithermal in Age. The worldwide extinctions of these prehistoric animals such as the woolly mammoth, the mastodon, the saber tooth tiger, the giant sloth and the list could go on and on marks the termination of the Pleistocene Ice Age. This time of mass extinctions also marks the termination of the geological Altithermal Age. See Figure 1. The question arises, what caused this worldwide extinction of animal life?

Berkey and Morris also found primitive stone implements, not unlike those used by the Neanderthal Man of Europe and the bones of extinct Pleistocene animals in gravels which were laid down before the vast deposits of “loess.” In other words, the Neanderthal Man also lived in this area of Mongolia. Their tools were mixed with the bones of the pre-historic elephants known as mammoths in gravels that would relate to Stage One of the Flood. See www.gira,ca. vol. 14, no. 2.

Similar surface features that are described by Berkey & Morris in Mongolia are similar to features of this particular age throughout Europe, Asia, Africa, America and in all parts of the world. This can only be explained by our Flood Disaster Scenario.

It must be remembered that the Pleistocene Ice Age, geologically extends back in time for about 2.5 million years. Regional geology has confirmed that the Pleistocene sediments in the Gulf of Mexico are up to 9,400 feet thick. On the basis of exploratory drilling and seismic records, it is found that the Pleistocene sediments progressively thicken northward in the Mackenzie Delta and into the Beaufort Sea to over 7,500 feet in thickness. I have had the great privilege of working the geology and working with geophysicists in this area.

As Manager of Exploration and operations of a certain company, I had the privilege of being involved with the drilling of a 13,000 foot COST well in the offshore area of the Gulf of Alaska. This well encountered about 4,000+ feet of Pleistocene sediments overlying sediments of Pliocene, Miocene and Oligocene ages. Seismic revealed that the Pleistocene was increasing in thickness in a seaward direction. This gives an idea as to the long age span of the Pleistocene Ice Age.

According to geology, the Pleistocene Ice Age came to an abrupt termination about 4,500 years ago by a Flood of worldwide dimensions. Anyone who has a sense of logical reasoning would equate this time of flooding to the Biblical Flood of Noah.

The Flood of Noah

Many broad and narrow river valleys were already in existence prior to the Flood that occurred geologically about 4500 years ago. However, on the basis of our Flood Disaster Scenario these valleys were re-carved, re-widened and previously existing boulders, cobbles, gravels, sands etc., would have been reworked, transported and re-deposited by the initial intensity of the tsunami tidal waves and turbulent waters.

The Flood of Noah can be divided into three definite Stages. For a description of the Mechanics of the Flood.

Figure 2: Chronology of Noah's Flood.

Figure 2: Chronology of Noah’s Flood.

Stage One is characterized by powerful tsunami tidal waves sweeping over continental areas during the early portion of the 40 day period. Previous existing sediments would have been reworked resulting in the re-deposition of boulders, cobblestones, gravels and sands. These new deposits would now be lying upon an eroded Pleistocene or older geological age surface. In areas where volcanic ash deposits are present such as in Calgary Alberta, these rocks are often coated with a whitish and often calcareous ash precipitate.

Stage Two is characterized by the rising of the flood waters that relates to the remaining portion of the 40 Day Period. It was during this time that a period of relative quiescence took place throughout the earth where only the finer fraction of sands, silts and mostly clays would have been deposited. These deposits are only found in select places, such as in Calgary, Alberta Canada where these sediments have varying amounts of whitish volcanic ash mixed with silts and mostly clays.

In most areas the Stage One and Stage Two deposits have been eroded by later powerful tsunami tidal waves. However, these two stages are preserved in local areas such as within the City of Calgary, Alberta Canada.

Stage Three relates to the remaining 330 day period of the Flood Age. It is characterized by the sequential lowering of the Flood waters that took place as the thin oceanic crust returned step by step to isostatic equilibrium. This stage resulted in many crustal readjustments. Each dramatic crustal readjustment resulted in the generation of a worldwide tsunami tidal wave that would have resulted in the formation of shoreline terraces and the re-erosion of the portion of the earth that was at that time above sea level. This explains why there are mysterious shorelines to be found worldwide several hundreds of feet above sea level at various places throughout the earth. This would also explain why alluvial fans established earlier during the Flood would have been altered by later wave action. These mysterious shore lines were established at various, still stand, elevations. The geological literature has documented many of these shoreline terraces worldwide.

It is because of the complexity of the Flood Disaster Scenario that many earth scientists have attempted to disprove that the Flood never took place. They have interpreted various Flood Deposits as resulting from more than one Flood event. Thus, they have falsely assigned long periods of time separating each one, thereby insisting that they could not belong to the same event.

What Happened to the Pleistocene Ice?

It was during the second and third Stages of the Flood that the great ice sheets that covered the northern continental regions of North America, Europe and Asia as well certain southern continental regions were lifted up and floated away. The higher Mountains regions such as in the Rocky Mountains of Canada, Greenland, Devon Island and mountains in northern Europe, Asia and other parts of the earth would have been high enough and strong enough to prevent the Glacial Ice from floating away. These mountain glaciers have remained to the present day.

Mima Mounds are places where large floating ice blocks have come to rest at certain locations where ice was never present before. As the ice block melts the remaining glacial sediments are deposited in what is called a mima mound.

 Results of the Flood in Mongolia, China & S.E. Asia

According to our Flood Disaster Scenario, the above mentioned “loess deposits” in northern China & Mongolia as well as in many other parts of the world are believed to be a derivative of the Third Stage of the Flood.

 The Third Stage is characterized by several sequences of powerful psunami tidal waves that swept over all the continental regions of the earth. They would have been associated with strong stormy winds and some rain. These are the winds that would have been responsible for depositing these layers of loess.

Berkey and Morris allude to the fact that man was present in Mongolia prior to the deposition of the loess. They also describe the renewed dissection of smooth surfaces which formerly supported a richer or more lush vegetation than at present. Geology confirms that the entire earth experienced luxuriant growth during the Anathermal Age. In spite of the fact that desert areas began to expand during the Altithermal Age, there were still many areas of lush vegetation where pre-Flood Man would have lived just prior to the Flood. (see Figure 1).

Geologist J. S. Lee 3 in his book, “Geology of China” page 370, describes a strange mixture of Pleistocene animal bones of the mammoth, buffalo, ostrich and many more in one great mélange at Choukoutien which was located about 30 miles north of Beijing. Lee says, “No conclusive evidence can be derived from this faunal assemblage as regards to the prevailing temperature at the time when it lived–some animals point to a rather severe climate, others to a warm climate– it is almost inconceivable that animals of such various habitats should live together and yet their remains are found side by side.” 3 This is an excellent description of a Flood Deposit. It is here conjectured that these various animal remains were carried great distances and washed into the cave, crevasses and valleys from various different regions by the tsunami Flood waters. These deposits are primarily Stage One Deposits. In some cases they have been reworked by Stage Three tsunami tidal waves. This of course adds to the complexity of the deposits that are now present.

Similar deposits are found in various places throughout the world. I believe they are post Pleistocene and pre-Recent Flood Deposits that were carried by the waters to a certain resting place where they have been preserved. The woolly mammoth together with many other pre-historic animals were present during the Altithermal, the Anathermal, and older Pleistocene ages. They all became extinct at the end of the Altithermal Age. See Figure 1.

The Choukoutien cave site is where the famous “Peking Man” originated. Dr. Davidson Black, professor of Anatomy at union Medical College in Peking and an American paleontologist Dr. Franz Weidenrich and Chinese paleontologist Dr. W.C. Pei maintained that the primitive stone tools found at this site in the upper and lower caves were made by Sinanthropus in the Lower Cave. Thus, they were able to create a new upright walking Ape Man called Sinanthropus pekinenses. As a result, the famous Peking Man was born. They also pictured him as being capable of making primitive stone tools. They also assigned an astronomical date of about 1.5 million years to when the Peking Man lived.

In other words, the Choukoutien deposits were dated back for about 1.5 million years when they are in reality Flood Deposits that can now be dated geologically to about 4500 years.

The famous French anthropologist Marcellin Boule who discovered the classical Neanderthal Man of Europe and his associate H. V. Vallois went to China to see the evidence. They came to the decision that the Choukoutien tools were not primitive as the gravers, scrapers and other tools, sometimes of fine workmanship, had many features not found in France until the Upper Paleolithic. Boule & and his associate Vallois believed the man who lived in the Upper Cave was responsible for making these tools and thus identifies these men with the Neanderthal Man of Europe. On the basis of geology, we now know that the Neanderthal Man lived during the Altithermal Age. For more information, see Don Daae’s book, “Bridging the Gap: The First 6 Days.”Also see the excellent work that has now been done by Biochemist, Duane T. Gish, Ph.D. 5

Dr. Davidson Black, Dr. Franz Weidenrich and Chinese paleontologist Dr. W.C. Pei continued to maintain the tools were made by the ape-man Sinanthropus pekinenses. This of course was done deliberately to enhance the Darwinian thesis that this newly discovered ape-man was an evolutionary ancestor to modern Man. This is scientific deception at its worse.

The science of geology can now confirm that the Neanderthal and the Cro-Magnon Man both lived during the Altithermal Age which was Pre-Flood. It is interesting to note that the Neanderthal Man mysteriously became extinct at the end of the age known as the Altithermal Age. This was also coincident with the extinction of the pre-historic animals throughout the earth.

The Mysterious Red Dye Coloring

Red Dye coloration in certain Flood Deposits is a world wide phenomenon. Immanuel Velikovsky, 1969 says this, “The fossils of Choukoutien are found imbedded in a reddish loam, a mixture of clay and sand, the deposition of which belongs to the same stage as the fossils; this reddish loam occurs extensively all over northern China. Archeologists Teilhard and Young concluded that the observed coloration can neither be a quality inherited from the original material of which the loams are composed, nor a condition brought about by slow chemical processes long after their formation. The coloration of this widespread formation was believed to be of extraneous and unexplained origin, the only definite statement concerning it is that some violent change of climate, in itself not the cause of the change of color, occurred immediately before the deposition of red loams —- or soon after deposition. The red loam referred to above is in reality loess.” 6

Oceanograhper H. Pettersson of the Oceanographic Institute at Goteborg examined the abysmal red clay from the bottom of the Pacific. He found the red clay contained layers of ash and a high content of nickel and iron. He attributed the origin of iron and nickel to prodigious showers of meteorites. He recognized ocean bedrock lavas as of Recent Origin. 

Much of Northern China is covered with a Recent layer of Loess. Chinese scientists Ziyuan, Chunlai and Dongsheng 8 discovered microtektites in the Loess that corresponds to the Australia – Asian microtektites which had been found in deep sea sediment cores. The microtektites are amber, yellowish brown, yellowish green, light green and light brown in color. The main elemental composition of the microtektites were SiO2, MgO, Al2O3 and FeO. They conclude, “The target materials that microtektites derived from are multi-sources constituents. After impact, tektites are resulted from the various even compounded melted target materials ejecting and cooling. — They are speculated to be the ablated drops of impacting body”

The Dictionary of Geological Terms9 defines tektites as follows, “A rounded pitted jet black to greenish or yellowish body of silicate glass of non volcanic origin, usually walnut-sized, found in groups in several widely separated areas of the earth’s surface. Most tektites are high in silica (68-82%) and very low in water content (average 0.005%): their composition is unlike that of obsidian and more like that of shale. Tektites average a few grams in weight. They are believed to be of extraterrestrial origin or alternatively the product of large hypervelocity meteorite impacts on terrestrial rocks. Etymol: Greek tektos, “molten”.”

Figure 3: Illustrates the effect that a giant comet could have upon the Earth’s thin crystalline crust.

Figure 3: Illustrates the effect that a giant comet could have upon the Earth’s thin crystalline crust.


Our Flood Disaster Scenario envisages a super comet to have passed through the Earth‘s atmosphere allowing 40 days for the tail of the comet with all its fine meteoric grains to pass by the Earth. The fallout of these fine meteoric grains into the atmosphere and to the earth could account for the microtektites and tektites that are characteristic of this age. It would also account for the reddish coloration of the deep sea clays and other sediments as well as the reddish stain that is sometimes present on pebbles and boulders of this age in different places throughout the earth.

More exploratory work is necessary to ascertain the regions of the earth that have similar aged sediments with similar characteristics. This may also give evidence as to the direction that this proposed comet may have travelled as it passed over the earth. The Bible says, “God made a wind to pass over the earth.” (Genesis 8:1) The implication in this verse is that this wind was an extraterrestrial wind. It could have been the wind generated by the tail of a giant comet. Some super comets are believed to be many million of miles in length.


1. Charles P. Berkey, Fredrick K. Morris, Geology of Mongolia, Natural  history of Central Asia, Vol. II, The American Museum of Natural History, N.Y. 1927.

2. Webster’s College Dictionary, 1995, Random House, Inc.

3. J. S. Lee, The Geology of China, London, 1939, p.370.

4. H. Donald Daae, Bridging The Gap: The first 6 Days, Genesis International Research Publishers, 1989, 165-169. The Peking Man, Sinanthropus pekinenses and the Java Man, Pithecanthropus erectus has been a vital part of my lecture series over the past years since 1970.

5. Duane T. Gish, Ph.D. “Evolution: the fossils STILL say NO.” Dr. Gish has done an excellent in depth study of Sinanthropus pekinenses, the Pekin Man and much more. This book was published and printed by the Institute for Creation Research, San Diego, California 92021 in 1995.

6. Immanuel Velikovsky, Earth In Upheaval, Dell Publ. Co. N.Y., 1969, p.67. The scientific community is always very critical of anyone who dares to quote any portion of Velikowsky’s books. This is unfortunate indeed. I do not agree with everything that he has written, but this is just one quotation from the great amount of research that he has done.

7. H. Petterson, Chronology of the Deep Ocean Bed, Tellus: Quarterly Journal of Geophysics, 1949.

8. Ouyang Ziyuan, Li Chunlai, An Zhisheng, A Discovery and Study of Microtektites in Loess, in Progress In geology of China (1989- 1992), Papers to 29th IGC, Geological Publishing house, Beijing, China, 1992.

9. The Dictionary of Geological terms, 3rd edition, prepared by the American Geological Institute, edited by R. L. Bates, & Julia A. Jackson 1984.






last updated: March 7, 2013
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