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Geology Unravels the Paradox

Geology of the Caucasus, Elbruz, Hindu Kish Mountains

A well known British Pleistocene geologist, Professor Charlesworth, in his 1957 book, THE QUATERNARY ERA, (p.604-605)9 wrote: “The Pleistocene indeed witnessed Earth-movements on a considerable, even catastrophic scale. There is evidence that it created mountains and ocean deeps of a size previously unequalled– the Pleistocene indeed represents one of the crescendi in the earth’s tectonic history. The movements affected about forty million square kilometers of the ocean floor, i.e. 70 % of the total surface of the Earth. Asia was subjected to powerful and far- reaching disturbances; the fault troughs of the Dead Sea, Red Sea, Jordan Valley, Gulf of Aden, Persian Gulf, and Arabian Sea received their present form. Earth movements elevated the Caucasus; the amount since Mindel time (i.e. the second stage of the Ice Age) is estimated at 3900 feet… and raised Lake Baikal region (Lake Baikal itself was deepened) and Central Asia by 6700 feet. Similar changes took place around the Pacific and in North China the uplift was estimated at 10,000 feet.”

Dr. Lester King, Professor of geology at Natal University, South Africa, in his 1962 book, THE MORPHOLOGY OF THE EARTH10 (p.33) stated, “The greatest uplift has taken place in the Himalaya—. The modern Andes were created by violent Pleistocene uparching. There is, of course, much evidence of a late vertical movement of the Himalaya from Tibet into Europe, the Mountain Garland, Hindu Kish, Elbruz, and Caucasus are everywhere the product of uplifting during Pliocene to Recent times.”

Professor Charlesworth believed that the great Pleistocene earth movements which affected 70% of the earth’s surface took place sometime after Mindel time. Geologists believe that the Mindel Age ended about 225,000 years ago. The question arises, when during the past 225,000 years did these great earth movements take place? Bear in mind that geologists believe the Pleistocene was about 2.5 million years in length. Archaeologists maintain it is possible to trace modern man (Homo sapien) back to about 225,00 years.

Geology of the Caspian Sea Region

The Caspian Sea is framed on the south and east by a mountain garland of the Caucasus, Elbruz Mountains that are joined eastward with the Hindu Kish and the Himalaya Mountains (Figure 1). The Caspian Sea is an excellent example of a half-graben structural basin that is bounded by a near vertical normal fault along its southern and eastern boundaries. This great Caspian Sea geological basin and the mountain garland to the south and east began to form when the southern Gondwanaland tectonic plate, namely Northern Africa and India began moving northward impacting Asia and Europe.

Figure 2: Map Showing the Caspian Sea region with the Greater Caucasus and the Talish Mountains to the west; the Elburz and the Shah Jaman Mountains to the south and east. Courtesy of hhtp://msdlem.sprat.se/davidgorgan/caspiansea.html.

Figure 2: Map Showing the Caspian Sea region with the Greater Caucasus and the Talish Mountains to the west; the Elburz and the Shah Jaman Mountains to the south and east. Courtesy of hhtp://msdlem.sprat.se/davidgorgan/caspiansea.html.

These mountains have been forming over a period of many millions of years coincident with the subsidence of the Caspian Sea half-graben basin (Figure 2). However the last vertical structural adjustment that lowered the level of the Caspian Sea from 4,000+ feet above sea level to 97 feet below sea level took place about 4,500 years ago at the end of the Altithermal Age.

 

Figure 2: An Illustration of the Caspian Sea Half Graben Structural Basin

Figure 2: An Illustration of the Caspian Sea Half Graben Structural Basin

Geology confirms that when certain areas undergo pronounced vertical uplift, adjacent areas experience dramatic subsidence. The Caspian Sea is an excellent example of a half-graben structural basin that is bounded by a near vertical normal fault along its southern and eastern eastern boundaries. By comparing similar geological basins throughout the world, it is found that the subsidence is generally much greater than the uplift of the adjacent Mountains. Dr. Charlesworth estimated that the Caucasus Mountains were elevated by about 3900 feet during the latter part of the Pleistocene Age. Thus the adjacent region that experienced simultaneous subsidence to the north and west of the near vertical normal fault would be greatly in excess of 4000+ feet.

The greatest subsidence took place along this vertical bounding fault in the southeastern portion of the Caspian Sea where the present water depths are about 3,200 feet below sea level. On the basis of geology this is where one would expect the greatest subsidence to have taken place as it lies along the main fault zone.

This subsidence would have also affected the entire region to the east of the Caspian Sea where it is believed the Garden of Eden was located. It would have undoubtedly affected a much larger area as well to the north of Eden. It is conceivable that these dramatic earth movements at the end of the Pleistocene Age completely reversed the drainage system in this particular area. Prior to this time, rivers flowed away from the Caspian Sea. Today rivers flow into the Caspian Sea.

Today, The Caspian Sea Basin has become a prolific oil and gas producing region. The various oil and gas fields are shown on Figure 1.

Geology can describe many different places throughout the earth where an area of pronounced vertical uplift resulted in the subsidence of the adjacent area. The subsidence is generally of a much greater magnitude than the uplift. These half-graben type structures are found in many different parts of the earth. We will briefly examine two similar structures namely, The Boothia-Cornwallis uplift in the High Arctic of Canada and the Grand Teton Mountain in Wyoming, USA.

Boothia Arch / Cornwallis Uplift

The north-south trending Boothia Arch/Cornwallis Uplift divides the High Arctic of Canada into a western and an eastern segment. A high angle normal fault is found along the western boundary of this uplift. The movement along this near vertical fault is mainly confined to the Devonian age. Sediments to the west of this boundary fault are illustrated in Figure 3. The Lower Devonian sediments that are represented by the Blue Fiord, Peel Sound and the Eids Formations are up to 10,000 feet in thickness on the down side of this fault. The overlying Middle and Upper Devonian Griper Bay/Bird Fjiord Formations are greater than 5,000 feet in thickness. The main movement along this fault took place within a time span of about 50 million years.

Figure 3: Illustrates the geology along the western downthrown block of the north-south trending Boothia-Cornwallis Uplift as it passes through the High Arctic of Canada.

Figure 3: Illustrates the geology along the western downthrown block of the north-south trending Boothia-Cornwallis Uplift as it passes through the High Arctic of Canada.

 

Grand Teton Mountains

The Grand Teton Mountains are located in the Grand Teton National Park of Wyoming, USA. These mountains are located along the NW trending Rocky Mountain Ranges that were formed between 40 to 80 million years ago. The rise of the Grand Tetons and the subsidence of the east block forming the Jackson Hole began about 6-9 million years ago when this region came under tensional stresses. This resulted in the formation of the Grand Teton’s half graben structure. Movement along this high angle near vertical fault has continued to Late Pleistocene times. It is possible that major movement took place at the end of the Pleistocene which equates to the end of the Altithermal Age.

Total vertical movement along the half-graben Teton fault is about 30,000 feet (Figure 4). This is based upon the presence of the Flat Head Sandstone on the summit of Mount Moran which is 6000 feet above the valley floor. Whereas, on the valley side of the fault, the Flat Head Sandstone is buried 24,000 feet below the valley surface. (www.grand teton mtns)

Figure 4: Illustrates the magnitude of vertical movement along the Grand Teton fault

Figure 4: Illustrates the magnitude of vertical movement along the Grand Teton fault

When did The Last Great Worldwide Earth Movements Take Place?

Dr. Charlesworth and Dr. Lester King imply that earth movements on a worldwide, catastrophic scale took place sometime during the latter part of the Pleistocene ice age. Modern geology can now relate the grand finale of these earth movements to the end of the Pleistocene Age. Two geological examples of Late Pleistocene tectonic upheaval are found in the Gulf of Alaska and in the Aleutian Trench. This gives strong scientific evidence that this dramatic geological event actually terminated the Pleistocene Age about 4,500 years before the present (Figure 4).

The Gulf of Alaska

One of many reasons why I believe these worldwide disturbances took place at the end of the Pleistocene Age is because of the following geological evidence. I was Manager of Exploration and Operations of a certain Exploration Company during the 1970’s and 1980’s. One exploration project involved drilling a COST well in the offshore region of the Gulf of Alaska. About 23 major oil and gas Companies participated in the drilling of this well. It was located on the flanks of a seismically defined anticline as shown on Figure 5 to gain geological information in preparation for upcoming offshore lease sales. This well was drilled to a depth of about 12.000 feet bottoming in sediments of Middle Tertiary age. It encountered about 4,000 feet of Pleistocene sediments overlying sediments of Pliocene, Miocene and Oligocene ages.

Seismic records revealed a thin layer (About 10 feet) of Recent mud and silt on sea bottom that was lying undisturbed upon a pronounced unconformity where the underlying strata had been folded into a series of anticlines and synclines. Due to compressional tectonic forces many of the anticlines had been partially thrust faulted over the synclines. Drilling samples confirmed that the underlying 4000+ feet of sediments were of Pleistocene age. Seismic also confirmed that these sediments were increasing in thickness in a seaward direction.

Geology confirms that this severe tectonic event in the Gulf of Alaska took place at the end of the Pleistocene Age. It was followed by a severe period of erosion that flattened the folded Pleistocene surface. Undisturbed mud and silty clay of Recent Age generally 10 to 30 feet were deposited above this erosion surface.

Figure 5: Geology of the Gulf of Alaska offshore illustrating the very Late Pleistocene tectonics that resulted in the formation of anticlinal and synclinal structures. Some anticlines are partially thrust faulted over synclines.

Figure 5: Geology of the Gulf of Alaska offshore illustrating the very Late Pleistocene tectonics that resulted in the formation of anticlinal and synclinal structures. Some anticlines are partially thrust faulted over synclines.

The Aleutian Trench

A prime example of Late Pleistocene tectonic activity is found within the Aleutian Trench. During the 1960s and 1970s the United States government with the support of many other countries utilized the services of the dynamically positioned drill ship called the Glomar Challenger to carry out scientific expeditions throughout the oceans of the world. A large amount of geological and geophysical research was done investigating the sea bottom sedimentary section and the oceanic crust at different parts of the ocean floor.

A geological journal called Geotimes dated October 1972, described the Project Leg 18, which concentrated its efforts along the Aleutian Deep Sea Trench, “Studies of the cores indicates that the oceanic crust now beneath the axis of the Aleutian Trench began subsiding in Late Pleistocene time, and that sediment filled the trench rapidly. The rate of tectonism and sedimentation implied by the core data are more rapid than those previously estimated. The drill cores consist of highly deformed Pleistocene sediment.”

The above article describes the flat lying undisturbed Recent (Holocene) sediments overlying the highly deformed Pleistocene formation. This is another verification of crustal movements taking place at the end of the Pleistocene Age. This event equates ironically to the time of Noah’s Flood. It also equates to the end of the Altithermal Age (Figure 6).

Figure 6: A Biblical and Geologically based chronology of the history of man.

Figure 6: A Biblical and Geologically based chronology of the history of man.

Conclusions

The geology of the Caspian Sea strongly suggests that this region is a primary place for the Biblical place called Eden. The Garden of Eden would have been located to the east of this large inland sea. Geology confirms that the Caspian Sea region could have been as much as 8,000 feet higher than it is today. This would have resulted in a dynamic watershed scenario providing water to feed four main river systems that flowed out of Eden to different parts of Europe, Asia and Africa.

By comparing the Caspian Sea Basin to other similar types of structural basins throughout the world, geology confirms that the basin subsidence always greatly exceeds the uplift of the adjacent mountains.

The Caspian Sea Basin is, today, a prolific oil and gas producing region bearing witness of its long, dynamic geological history.

References

Richard Bozarth, The Meaning of Evolution. The American Atheist, September 10, 1978.

Science, 1973, p.379. R.V. Challenger, Legg 23b of the Deep Sea Drilling Project aboard the RV Glomar Challenger.

Antevs, Ernest. Retreat of the Last Ice Sheet in Eastern Canada. Geol. Survey Canada, Mem. 146, 1925.

Antevs, Ernst. The Recession of the Last Ice Sheet in New England. Amer. Geog. Soc., Research Ser. 11, 1922.

Antevs, Ernest. Geochronology of the Deglacial and Neothermal Ages. The Journal of Geology, Vol.61, Number 3, May 1953.

DeGreer, Gerard, Geochronologia Suecica Principles, Svenska, Vetenskapsakad, Handl., Vol. 18, No. 6, 1940.

Stern Philip VanDoren, Prehistoric Europe from Stone Age Man to the Early Greeks NY Norton, 1969, p.211

Professor Charlesworth, The Quaternary Era p: 604-605

Dr. Lester King, The Morphology of the Earth.

 

 

 

 

last updated: March 7, 2013
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