Skip to Content

What is the Error of Young Earth, Flood Geology?

The error in their reasoning is simply this: they do not acknowledge or are they willing to literally interpret the Second Tree in the Garden of Eden, the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil. Rather, Morris and Whitcomb strongly maintain that at the end of the six days of creation, and for an indefinite time after that, there was apparently no evil in the entire universe. At the same time, they maintain that they always interpret all passages of the Bible literally. However, they fail to literally interpret the most important tree in the Garden of Eden, “The Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil.” They don’t even mention or attempt to literally interpret this tree. Because, if they would dare to literally interpret this tree, then they would have to admit the Earth is old.

Why are they ignoring the Tree of the Knowledge of Good & Evil? After God created Adam, one of the first things God did was to take Adam to the two trees in the garden. The Lord God commanded the man saying, “of every tree of the garden you may freely eat; but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat, for in the day that you eat of it you shall surely die”3 (Genesis 2:16-17). This was a test of Adam’s obedience to the Lord. God was speaking a language that Adam could understand. This event took place before Adam was asked to name the animals and before Eve was created.

There is a Rule of First Mention that theologians apply when they interpret scripture. It is stated as follows, “When a word or phrase is first mentioned in the Bible, it will give a clue as to its meaning in later portions of scripture where its meaning may not be too clear.” The first mention of evil and death are both found in Genesis 2:15-17 (NIV) which says, “The LORD God took the man and put him in the Garden of Eden to work it and take care of it. 16 And the LORD God commanded the man, “You are free to eat from any tree in the garden; 17 but you must not eat from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, for when you eat of it you will surely die.” If we apply the Rule of First Mention, we can demonstrate that evil and death originated with the Fall of Lucifer, not with the Fall of Adam and Eve.

If we are willing to literally interpret this portion of scripture, then we must conclude that the Fall of Lucifer had already taken place prior to the first mention of evil and death and prior to the Creation of Adam and Eve and prior to the end of the Sixth Day of Creation. The question arises how long before the creation of Adam and Eve did Lucifer Fall? We can find the answer to this question from the Bible and from the science of geology.

Why have Whitcomb and Morris not recognized and literally interpreted the Second Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil? Why have later Young Earth Creationists who endorse Flood Geology failed to recognize the Biblical fact that evil and death were present in the Garden of Eden prior to the end of the Sixth Day and prior to the creation of Adam and Eve? This is a mystery! If they would acknowledge and literally interpret this tree, they would lose their credibility.

God said it was Good: What does this Mean?

Much controversy surrounds the phrase, “God said it was good” when pertaining to the Creation Week in Genesis Chapter One. Each Creation day is followed by the statement, God said it was good, except the Second Day. Then God said that the Sixth Day was very good. Why should there be controversy over these statements by Almighty God.

Creation Science “Flood Geology” people are saying there is no mention of evil throughout the entire universe until after the 6th Day of Creation. Let us now examine these Six Creation Days to see if there are clues that Lucifer may have fallen prior to the early part of the 7th Day.

last updated: March 7, 2013
Copyright © 2010 Genesis International Research Association

The Edenic Curse

It is important to note that those who have accepted Flood Geology only acknowledge the Edenic Curse, but not the Adamic Curse. In fact they do not even acknowledge or mention the Adamic Curse.

Whitcomb & Morris1 are the authors of, “The Genesis Flood.” They are considered by many to be the Fathers of Flood Geology. They strongly maintain that the only object created during the First Day of Creation was the Earth. They also strongly contend that the vast universe of stars and galaxies were created during the 4th Day of Creation. They contend that the Universe and the Earth were created about 6,000+ years ago during a six 24 hour Creation Week. The reason for believing this is based upon their interpretation of the Edenic Curse. Flood Geology persons are of the belief that God has only given Mankind one record and that is the Record of the Holy Scriptures. They completely ignore the second record which is the Record of Geology & Paleontology. Their teachings of the Edenic Curse is totally based upon the record of the Bible.

They believe the Edenic Curse began at the very moment Adam and Eve disobeyed Almighty God and partook of the forbidden fruit. As a result, their sin was transmited to all of their descendants. However, they went one step further to say that Adam and Eve’s sin resulted in the death of all plant and animal life and that it has affected the entire universe. In other words, the “Edenic Curse” was also transmitted to all plant and animal life as well as to the entire physical universe of stars and galaxies.

The difference between the Edenic Curse and the Adamic curse will be carefully explained in Don Daae’s new book that is tentatively entitled, “The Mysterious Origin & Phenomenal Accomplishments of Early Man.”2 This book is a sequel to Bridging the Gap:The First 6 Days.”3

References for the Edenic Curse

1. John C. Whitcombe, Jr., Th.D. and Henry M. Morris, PhD and are the authors of, “The Genesis Flood,” the Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Company, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1967. pages 454-473.

2. H. Donald Daae, “The Mysterious Origin & Phenomenal Accomplishments of Early Man.” Ready for publishing. It is a sequel to Bridging the Gap It describes the difference between the Edenic Curse & the Adamic Curse. It is a sequel to Bridging the Gap: The First 6 Days.” Ready to be published.

3. H. Donald Daae P.Geol., “Bridging the Gap: The First 6 Days.“ This book iwas published in 1989. Copies are available for $10.00 plus handling charges @ 18 Shawinigan Rise SW, Calgary, Alberta T2Y-1Z6. This book describes the amazing compatibility that exists between the record of Geology, Archaeology and Anthropology and the record of the Bible from the geological beginning of the Earth to the end of the Pleistocene Ice Age.

last updated: March 7, 2013
Copyright © 2010 Genesis International Research Association

What is Flood Geology?

Flood Geology is the belief that the Earth was created about 6000+ years ago and that the worldwide catastrophic Flood of Noah is responsible for depositing the great volumes of water laid sedimentary rock throughout the Earth about 4350 to 4500 years ago. Flood Geology followers have become known as Creation Science persons.

Creation Science persons are now saying the Earth could have been created as early as 10,000 years ago. If that is the case, then Noah’s Flood would have taken place considerably earlier than 4500 years ago. This extended date has become somewhat perplexing to the founders of Flood Geology.

Ellen G. White, the prophetess and founder of the Seventh Day Adventist Movement, was the earliest proponent of Flood Geology. She maintained that God had given her a divine revelation that there were no deaths on Earth until after the Creation Week when Adam and Eve sinned. Their sin, which resulted in their impending death, was passed on to all Mankind and to all animal and plant life. She thus maintained that the Earth could be no older than about 6,000 years.

In 1923, geologist Dr. George McCready Price (1870-1963)1, a member of the Seventh Day Adventist Movement, wrote a College textbook entitled ”Evolutionary Geology and the New Catastrophism.” It embraced Ellen White’s vision. It featured the Genesis Flood as the central geological event in the history of the Earth.

In 1961, Whitcomb & Morris2 wrote a book entitled, “The Genesis Flood.” It expanded upon the work of Dr. Price. This theory was rapidly popularized among fundamental and evangelical Christians in the United States, Canada and other parts of the world. “The Genesis Flood” became the basis for the Theory of Catastrophic Flood Geology and Creation Science. Its proponents consider this theory as representing absolute truth based upon strict hermeneutic exegesis.

Today, anyone who dares criticize this approach is accused of promoting Biblical heresy and promoting Theistic Evolution. Because, so many Christians have accepted Flood Geology and Creation Science as Biblical Truth, it is important to expose the root of its error.

Flood Geology is also endorsed by a systematic theologian Bible College Professor James Oliver Buswell.3 He discusses the Works of God in Creation with respect to the origin of angels. He said, “So far as the teaching of the scriptures is concerned, the creation of the angels may have taken place at any time prior to the end of the sixth day, but that the fall of Satan and the evil angels took place after God’s pronouncement that “everything he had made” was “all very good.” Gen.1:31). Then he qualifies his conclusion by saying, ”The fall of Satan must have taken place between the end of the sixth day and the temptation of man in the Garden of Eden.” Buswell is in complete agreement with Whitcomb & Morris that the Fall of Man took place soon after the Fall of Lucifer and his angels. He also believed that Adam and Eve’s sin was responsible for the death of all animal, plant and human life. This concept has become a doctrine known as “The Edenic Curse.

Henry Morris4 says, “At the end of the six days of creation, and for an indefinite time after that, there was apparently no evil in the entire universe.” He maintains that it was after the Fall of Man that death fell upon all plant, animal and human life. Prior to this moment in time there were no deaths of plant, animal or human life. The proof of this is verified by the phrase in Genesis 1:31, “Then God saw everything that He had made and indeed it was very good.” He maintains that God could never have said that it was very good if sin was already present. On the basis of this statement, he believed that the Earth can only be about 6,000+ years old.

As a result of this teaching by these highly qualified persons, any person who dared to believe that the Earth could be older on the basis of the geological record of the Earth was guilty of advocating the False Doctrine of Uniformitarian Geology. How does one respond to these great Theologians who are advocates of Flood Geology? What is Uniformitarianism or Uniformitarian Geology?

We will be assessing and answering these questions as we progress.

References

1. George McCready Price, PhD., “Evolutionary Geology and the New Catastrophism,” Mountain View, California, Pacific Press Publishing Association. 1926.

2. John C. Whitcombe, Jr., Th.D. and Henry M. Morris, PhD and are the authors of, “The Genesis Flood,” the Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Company, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1967. pages 454-473.

3. James Oliver Buswell, Jr., Ph.D., “A Systematic Theology of the Christain Religion, Volume One, Zondervan Publishing House of the Zondervan Corporation, Grand Rapids, Michigan 49506. p. 131, ninth printing 1975. This book is commonly used as a textbook in Christian Colleges since its first printing in 1962. Whitcomb and Morris’s Genesis Flood has also been a key reference and textbook in Christian Colleges..

4. Morris M. Henry, “The Beginning of the World,” Accent Books, Denver, CO, 1981, p.55.

last updated: March 7, 2013
Copyright © 2010 Genesis International Research Association

Geological Evidences Of the Flood in Mongolia, China & SE Asia

INTRODUCTION

Throughout the world there are water laid sediments that are younger in age than Pleistocene and older than Recent. These sediments are classified, herein, as Flood Deposits and relate to the Flood Age (see Figure 1). They consist of boulders, cobbles, gravels, sands, silts, and shales. They generally contain disarticulate remains of Pleistocene animal and plant life. Scattered artifacts of Man are often found within these sediments, but there is an absence of in situ sites of Man. The in situ sites of Man are often found below or above these water laid sediments. A mysterious reddish dye coloration often characterize these sediments in different parts of the world.

Our Flood Disaster scenario envisages three separate and distinct stages of the Flood. There are certain areas such as Calgary Alberta Canada where three distinct stages can be identified. See www.gira,ca. vol. 14, no. 2.

Figure 1: A Biblical and Geologically based chronology of the history of man.

Figure 1: A Biblical and Geologically based chronology of the history of man.

MONGOLIA, CHINA & S.E. ASIA

This paper will concentrate on evidences of Flood deposits throughout Mongolia, China and southeast Asia. These sediments are very similar to what is found throughout Europe, Eastern Europe, Russia, Africa and the America’s. A map of this region is shown on Figure 2.

Figure 2: Map of Mongolia, China, SE. Asia & neighboring countries

Figure 2: Map of Mongolia, China, SE. Asia & neighboring countries

A reconnaissance geological report by geologists Charles Berkey from Columbia University and Frederick Morris of the American Museum of Natural History relate interesting surface observations in their 1927 report, Geology of Mongolia.1 As they journeyed through Mongolia they noted recent changes in climate. They write, “We find many evidences of climatic changes: in the building and partial destruction of several alluvial fans along the Altai front; in the ancient beaches at Tsagan Nor; in the re-dissection of the gently sloping walls of hollows; in the renewed dissection of smooth surfaces which formerly supported a richer carpet of vegetation than at present; in renewed dissection of the Gobi erosion plane; in the carving of broad valleys by streams which have vanished and whose channels are now filled with wind blown sand; in the failure of rivers to reach their terminal lakes; in the shrinking of the meander-curves of rivers, as shown by the large abandoned meandering scarps; in the drying of salt lakes to form salt pans; in old drawings cut upon rocks by a vanished race, picturing animals that lived in woodlands, though the region is now bare of trees.” This quotation gives an excellent description of Flood Deposits and associated erosional dissection of the landscape by powerful tsunami tidal waves.

Berkey and Morris also mention the discoveries by French Archeologists Pere Emil Licent (1925) and Pere Teilhard de Chardin (1924) who had discovered Paleolithic and Neolithic cultures in the Gobi Desert area. They found primitive stone implements, not unlike those used by the Neanderthal Man of Europe and the bones of extinct Pleistocene animals in gravels which were laid down before the vast deposits of “loess” were formed in northern China.

According to my Webster’s College Dictionary2, loess is a loamy, usually yellowish and calcareous deposit formed by wind. It is common in the Mississippi Valley in the USA and in Europe and Asia. These loess deposits are believed to belong to the latest portion called stage three of the Flood Disaster Scenario.

Berkey and Morris imply that these loess deposits were deposited after the Pleistocene animals became extinct. They would thus be post Altithermal in Age. The worldwide extinctions of these prehistoric animals such as the woolly mammoth, the mastodon, the saber tooth tiger, the giant sloth and the list could go on and on marks the termination of the Pleistocene Ice Age. This time of mass extinctions also marks the termination of the geological Altithermal Age. See Figure 1. The question arises, what caused this worldwide extinction of animal life?

Berkey and Morris also found primitive stone implements, not unlike those used by the Neanderthal Man of Europe and the bones of extinct Pleistocene animals in gravels which were laid down before the vast deposits of “loess.” In other words, the Neanderthal Man also lived in this area of Mongolia. Their tools were mixed with the bones of the pre-historic elephants known as mammoths in gravels that would relate to Stage One of the Flood. See www.gira,ca. vol. 14, no. 2.

Similar surface features that are described by Berkey & Morris in Mongolia are similar to features of this particular age throughout Europe, Asia, Africa, America and in all parts of the world. This can only be explained by our Flood Disaster Scenario.

It must be remembered that the Pleistocene Ice Age, geologically extends back in time for about 2.5 million years. Regional geology has confirmed that the Pleistocene sediments in the Gulf of Mexico are up to 9,400 feet thick. On the basis of exploratory drilling and seismic records, it is found that the Pleistocene sediments progressively thicken northward in the Mackenzie Delta and into the Beaufort Sea to over 7,500 feet in thickness. I have had the great privilege of working the geology and working with geophysicists in this area.

As Manager of Exploration and operations of a certain company, I had the privilege of being involved with the drilling of a 13,000 foot COST well in the offshore area of the Gulf of Alaska. This well encountered about 4,000+ feet of Pleistocene sediments overlying sediments of Pliocene, Miocene and Oligocene ages. Seismic revealed that the Pleistocene was increasing in thickness in a seaward direction. This gives an idea as to the long age span of the Pleistocene Ice Age.

According to geology, the Pleistocene Ice Age came to an abrupt termination about 4,500 years ago by a Flood of worldwide dimensions. Anyone who has a sense of logical reasoning would equate this time of flooding to the Biblical Flood of Noah.

The Flood of Noah

Many broad and narrow river valleys were already in existence prior to the Flood that occurred geologically about 4500 years ago. However, on the basis of our Flood Disaster Scenario these valleys were re-carved, re-widened and previously existing boulders, cobbles, gravels, sands etc., would have been reworked, transported and re-deposited by the initial intensity of the tsunami tidal waves and turbulent waters.

The Flood of Noah can be divided into three definite Stages. For a description of the Mechanics of the Flood.

Figure 2: Chronology of Noah's Flood.

Figure 2: Chronology of Noah’s Flood.

Stage One is characterized by powerful tsunami tidal waves sweeping over continental areas during the early portion of the 40 day period. Previous existing sediments would have been reworked resulting in the re-deposition of boulders, cobblestones, gravels and sands. These new deposits would now be lying upon an eroded Pleistocene or older geological age surface. In areas where volcanic ash deposits are present such as in Calgary Alberta, these rocks are often coated with a whitish and often calcareous ash precipitate.

Stage Two is characterized by the rising of the flood waters that relates to the remaining portion of the 40 Day Period. It was during this time that a period of relative quiescence took place throughout the earth where only the finer fraction of sands, silts and mostly clays would have been deposited. These deposits are only found in select places, such as in Calgary, Alberta Canada where these sediments have varying amounts of whitish volcanic ash mixed with silts and mostly clays.

In most areas the Stage One and Stage Two deposits have been eroded by later powerful tsunami tidal waves. However, these two stages are preserved in local areas such as within the City of Calgary, Alberta Canada.

Stage Three relates to the remaining 330 day period of the Flood Age. It is characterized by the sequential lowering of the Flood waters that took place as the thin oceanic crust returned step by step to isostatic equilibrium. This stage resulted in many crustal readjustments. Each dramatic crustal readjustment resulted in the generation of a worldwide tsunami tidal wave that would have resulted in the formation of shoreline terraces and the re-erosion of the portion of the earth that was at that time above sea level. This explains why there are mysterious shorelines to be found worldwide several hundreds of feet above sea level at various places throughout the earth. This would also explain why alluvial fans established earlier during the Flood would have been altered by later wave action. These mysterious shore lines were established at various, still stand, elevations. The geological literature has documented many of these shoreline terraces worldwide.

It is because of the complexity of the Flood Disaster Scenario that many earth scientists have attempted to disprove that the Flood never took place. They have interpreted various Flood Deposits as resulting from more than one Flood event. Thus, they have falsely assigned long periods of time separating each one, thereby insisting that they could not belong to the same event.

What Happened to the Pleistocene Ice?

It was during the second and third Stages of the Flood that the great ice sheets that covered the northern continental regions of North America, Europe and Asia as well certain southern continental regions were lifted up and floated away. The higher Mountains regions such as in the Rocky Mountains of Canada, Greenland, Devon Island and mountains in northern Europe, Asia and other parts of the earth would have been high enough and strong enough to prevent the Glacial Ice from floating away. These mountain glaciers have remained to the present day.

Mima Mounds are places where large floating ice blocks have come to rest at certain locations where ice was never present before. As the ice block melts the remaining glacial sediments are deposited in what is called a mima mound.

 Results of the Flood in Mongolia, China & S.E. Asia

According to our Flood Disaster Scenario, the above mentioned “loess deposits” in northern China & Mongolia as well as in many other parts of the world are believed to be a derivative of the Third Stage of the Flood.

 The Third Stage is characterized by several sequences of powerful psunami tidal waves that swept over all the continental regions of the earth. They would have been associated with strong stormy winds and some rain. These are the winds that would have been responsible for depositing these layers of loess.

Berkey and Morris allude to the fact that man was present in Mongolia prior to the deposition of the loess. They also describe the renewed dissection of smooth surfaces which formerly supported a richer or more lush vegetation than at present. Geology confirms that the entire earth experienced luxuriant growth during the Anathermal Age. In spite of the fact that desert areas began to expand during the Altithermal Age, there were still many areas of lush vegetation where pre-Flood Man would have lived just prior to the Flood. (see Figure 1).

Geologist J. S. Lee 3 in his book, “Geology of China” page 370, describes a strange mixture of Pleistocene animal bones of the mammoth, buffalo, ostrich and many more in one great mélange at Choukoutien which was located about 30 miles north of Beijing. Lee says, “No conclusive evidence can be derived from this faunal assemblage as regards to the prevailing temperature at the time when it lived–some animals point to a rather severe climate, others to a warm climate– it is almost inconceivable that animals of such various habitats should live together and yet their remains are found side by side.” 3 This is an excellent description of a Flood Deposit. It is here conjectured that these various animal remains were carried great distances and washed into the cave, crevasses and valleys from various different regions by the tsunami Flood waters. These deposits are primarily Stage One Deposits. In some cases they have been reworked by Stage Three tsunami tidal waves. This of course adds to the complexity of the deposits that are now present.

Similar deposits are found in various places throughout the world. I believe they are post Pleistocene and pre-Recent Flood Deposits that were carried by the waters to a certain resting place where they have been preserved. The woolly mammoth together with many other pre-historic animals were present during the Altithermal, the Anathermal, and older Pleistocene ages. They all became extinct at the end of the Altithermal Age. See Figure 1.

The Choukoutien cave site is where the famous “Peking Man” originated. Dr. Davidson Black, professor of Anatomy at union Medical College in Peking and an American paleontologist Dr. Franz Weidenrich and Chinese paleontologist Dr. W.C. Pei maintained that the primitive stone tools found at this site in the upper and lower caves were made by Sinanthropus in the Lower Cave. Thus, they were able to create a new upright walking Ape Man called Sinanthropus pekinenses. As a result, the famous Peking Man was born. They also pictured him as being capable of making primitive stone tools. They also assigned an astronomical date of about 1.5 million years to when the Peking Man lived.

In other words, the Choukoutien deposits were dated back for about 1.5 million years when they are in reality Flood Deposits that can now be dated geologically to about 4500 years.

The famous French anthropologist Marcellin Boule who discovered the classical Neanderthal Man of Europe and his associate H. V. Vallois went to China to see the evidence. They came to the decision that the Choukoutien tools were not primitive as the gravers, scrapers and other tools, sometimes of fine workmanship, had many features not found in France until the Upper Paleolithic. Boule & and his associate Vallois believed the man who lived in the Upper Cave was responsible for making these tools and thus identifies these men with the Neanderthal Man of Europe. On the basis of geology, we now know that the Neanderthal Man lived during the Altithermal Age. For more information, see Don Daae’s book, “Bridging the Gap: The First 6 Days.”Also see the excellent work that has now been done by Biochemist, Duane T. Gish, Ph.D. 5

Dr. Davidson Black, Dr. Franz Weidenrich and Chinese paleontologist Dr. W.C. Pei continued to maintain the tools were made by the ape-man Sinanthropus pekinenses. This of course was done deliberately to enhance the Darwinian thesis that this newly discovered ape-man was an evolutionary ancestor to modern Man. This is scientific deception at its worse.

The science of geology can now confirm that the Neanderthal and the Cro-Magnon Man both lived during the Altithermal Age which was Pre-Flood. It is interesting to note that the Neanderthal Man mysteriously became extinct at the end of the age known as the Altithermal Age. This was also coincident with the extinction of the pre-historic animals throughout the earth.

The Mysterious Red Dye Coloring

Red Dye coloration in certain Flood Deposits is a world wide phenomenon. Immanuel Velikovsky, 1969 says this, “The fossils of Choukoutien are found imbedded in a reddish loam, a mixture of clay and sand, the deposition of which belongs to the same stage as the fossils; this reddish loam occurs extensively all over northern China. Archeologists Teilhard and Young concluded that the observed coloration can neither be a quality inherited from the original material of which the loams are composed, nor a condition brought about by slow chemical processes long after their formation. The coloration of this widespread formation was believed to be of extraneous and unexplained origin, the only definite statement concerning it is that some violent change of climate, in itself not the cause of the change of color, occurred immediately before the deposition of red loams —- or soon after deposition. The red loam referred to above is in reality loess.” 6

Oceanograhper H. Pettersson of the Oceanographic Institute at Goteborg examined the abysmal red clay from the bottom of the Pacific. He found the red clay contained layers of ash and a high content of nickel and iron. He attributed the origin of iron and nickel to prodigious showers of meteorites. He recognized ocean bedrock lavas as of Recent Origin. 

Much of Northern China is covered with a Recent layer of Loess. Chinese scientists Ziyuan, Chunlai and Dongsheng 8 discovered microtektites in the Loess that corresponds to the Australia – Asian microtektites which had been found in deep sea sediment cores. The microtektites are amber, yellowish brown, yellowish green, light green and light brown in color. The main elemental composition of the microtektites were SiO2, MgO, Al2O3 and FeO. They conclude, “The target materials that microtektites derived from are multi-sources constituents. After impact, tektites are resulted from the various even compounded melted target materials ejecting and cooling. — They are speculated to be the ablated drops of impacting body”

The Dictionary of Geological Terms9 defines tektites as follows, “A rounded pitted jet black to greenish or yellowish body of silicate glass of non volcanic origin, usually walnut-sized, found in groups in several widely separated areas of the earth’s surface. Most tektites are high in silica (68-82%) and very low in water content (average 0.005%): their composition is unlike that of obsidian and more like that of shale. Tektites average a few grams in weight. They are believed to be of extraterrestrial origin or alternatively the product of large hypervelocity meteorite impacts on terrestrial rocks. Etymol: Greek tektos, “molten”.”

Figure 3: Illustrates the effect that a giant comet could have upon the Earth’s thin crystalline crust.

Figure 3: Illustrates the effect that a giant comet could have upon the Earth’s thin crystalline crust.

CONCLUSION

Our Flood Disaster Scenario envisages a super comet to have passed through the Earth‘s atmosphere allowing 40 days for the tail of the comet with all its fine meteoric grains to pass by the Earth. The fallout of these fine meteoric grains into the atmosphere and to the earth could account for the microtektites and tektites that are characteristic of this age. It would also account for the reddish coloration of the deep sea clays and other sediments as well as the reddish stain that is sometimes present on pebbles and boulders of this age in different places throughout the earth.

More exploratory work is necessary to ascertain the regions of the earth that have similar aged sediments with similar characteristics. This may also give evidence as to the direction that this proposed comet may have travelled as it passed over the earth. The Bible says, “God made a wind to pass over the earth.” (Genesis 8:1) The implication in this verse is that this wind was an extraterrestrial wind. It could have been the wind generated by the tail of a giant comet. Some super comets are believed to be many million of miles in length.

 References

1. Charles P. Berkey, Fredrick K. Morris, Geology of Mongolia, Natural  history of Central Asia, Vol. II, The American Museum of Natural History, N.Y. 1927.

2. Webster’s College Dictionary, 1995, Random House, Inc.

3. J. S. Lee, The Geology of China, London, 1939, p.370.

4. H. Donald Daae, Bridging The Gap: The first 6 Days, Genesis International Research Publishers, 1989, 165-169. The Peking Man, Sinanthropus pekinenses and the Java Man, Pithecanthropus erectus has been a vital part of my lecture series over the past years since 1970.

5. Duane T. Gish, Ph.D. “Evolution: the fossils STILL say NO.” Dr. Gish has done an excellent in depth study of Sinanthropus pekinenses, the Pekin Man and much more. This book was published and printed by the Institute for Creation Research, San Diego, California 92021 in 1995.

6. Immanuel Velikovsky, Earth In Upheaval, Dell Publ. Co. N.Y., 1969, p.67. The scientific community is always very critical of anyone who dares to quote any portion of Velikowsky’s books. This is unfortunate indeed. I do not agree with everything that he has written, but this is just one quotation from the great amount of research that he has done.

7. H. Petterson, Chronology of the Deep Ocean Bed, Tellus: Quarterly Journal of Geophysics, 1949.

8. Ouyang Ziyuan, Li Chunlai, An Zhisheng, A Discovery and Study of Microtektites in Loess, in Progress In geology of China (1989- 1992), Papers to 29th IGC, Geological Publishing house, Beijing, China, 1992.

9. The Dictionary of Geological terms, 3rd edition, prepared by the American Geological Institute, edited by R. L. Bates, & Julia A. Jackson 1984.

 

 

 

 

 

last updated: March 7, 2013
Copyright © 2010 Genesis International Research Association

The Mechanics of the Flood Disaster Scenario Worldwide

There is sufficient water on the earth today to cover the entire land areas of all continents, including the highest mountains by 22 feet. If this is true, then we can certainly assume that this was also the case in Noah’s time. How is it possible that this statement could be true?

The onset of the Noah’s Flood may have coincided, or have been a result of, a major physical trauma or catastrophic event. The fact that God commands the heavens and the Earth does not imply that events such as the Flood are entirely supernatural. There are many natural devices God may have employed. See Figure 1.

Figure 1: Illustrates the effect that a giant comet could have upon the Earth’s thin crystalline crust.

Figure 1: Illustrates the effect that a giant comet could have upon the Earth’s thin crystalline crust.

The Bible gives valuable clues as to the possible mechanics of the Flood: We read, “And it came to pass after seven days that the waters of the flood were on the Earth. In the six hundredth year of Noah’s life, in the second month, the seventeenth day of the month, on that day all the fountains of the great deep were broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened. And the rain was on the Earth forty days and forty nights (Genesis 7:10‑12). Then God remembered Noah, and every living thing, and all the animals that were with him in the Ark. and God made a wind to pass over the earth, and the waters subsided. The fountains of the deep and the windows of heaven were also stopped, and the rain from heaven was restrained.” (Genesis 8:1‑2)

The Earth consists of three main component parts, an outer crust, an inner mantle and an inner core. The crystalline crust is floating on the liquid and viscous mantle rocks. It is analogous in thickness to the peel of an apple. The crust is about two to four miles thick or less in ocean areas, and ranges from 15 to 30 miles thick in continental areas. The crust is never static. It is always moving, rising in certain areas and sinking in other areas. For example, the continents of North and South America are believed to be moving in a general west direction at about 3 to centimeters per year over riding the thin oceanic Pacific crust which is being sub ducted under the continental crust as a large conveyor belt.

The concept of plate tectonic and the drifting of the continents envisage a continual interaction between the various crustal plates. As the crust slowly moves, great pressures of stress and tension build up, resulting in Earth movements along fault or fracture zones. This results in Earthquakes, earth shakings, movement along faults and also destructive tsunami type of tidal waves. Hot liquid rock is often injected into zones of weakness, and may result in volcanism, or the intrusion of great igneous masses into the sedimentary country rock. This occurs in both ocean and land regions.

The Bible says, “All the fountains of the great deep were broken up” (Genesis 7:11). The Hebrew word for deep is tehoum. It means a profound deep or an abyss. According to Webster’s dictionary the word abyss means a deep, immeasurable space. The profound deep here refers to zones below the Earth’s crust where the juvenile waters are present in conjunction with hot liquid mantle rocks. The hot, liquid portions of the Mantle extends deep into the outer portions of the inner core. As the Earth’s crust was ruptured, fountains of juvenile waters were released into the oceans and atmosphere. The technical language is the same as that used during the First Day of Creation when the “Birth of the Oceans” took place. At that time God released water into the atmosphere, which resulted in the formation of the oceans and the associated water cycle.

The Earth sciences of geology and geophysics have revealed amazing information with respect to the dynamics of the earth’s interior. Much information has been gained through the geological and geophysical sciences with respect to the complexities and the amazing dynamics of the earth’s interior. A special edition of Scientific American entitled, “Our Ever Changing Earth.” 1 gives a revealing insight into the powerful dynamics within the Earth that are continually changing, shaping and shaking our earth.

Enrico Bonatti1 says, “The water in earth’s mantle could equal the amount contained in several oceans.” He goes on to say, “much of this water is probably primordial, captured in Earth’s mantle at the time of its formation over four billion years ago.” In other words there are still great volumes of water present within the interior mantle of the earth that is equal in volume to several of our oceans.

At the time the Flood began, God released additional amounts of juvenile water into the atmosphere. The purpose was to trigger immediate rainfall. We read, “And the windows of heaven were opened. And the rain was on the Earth forty days and forty nights (Genesis 7:11, 12).

If great volumes of hot juvenile waters were released into the atmosphere, clouds would not condense immediately. As soon as warm water begins to condense, additional heat would be released, preventing further condensation. An outside cooling agent or catalyst was required to cause the warm waters to condense and for rain to fall immediately. A close friend of mine, Walter Nemanishen, a hydrologist engineer, suggested the importance of a cooling catalytic agent. Otherwise the rain would never have occurred immediately. God must have introduced such a mechanism, possibly from outer space to fulfill His purpose.

An exceptionally large, giant comet could provide this mechanism. A comet tail is extremely cold. It consists of frozen particles of water, ammonia, methane and meteoric dust. If sufficiently large, the introduction of these particles into the atmosphere could have provided the required cooling effect. The relatively thick layer of gases and cloud comprising the Earth’s atmosphere tends to act as a barrier to insulate against such intrusions. It also stores a large amount of heat, protecting the surface of the Earth against the absolute coldness of space. The Earth has passed through the tails of average size comets in modern history (including that of Halley’s comet in 1910) without catastrophe. (see Figure 1)

If we assume, the Lord God allowed the extremely cold tail of an exceptionally large comet to pass through and to cool the atmosphere, it would act as a catalytic agent to condense the warm water into clouds causing rain to fall immediately. The Flood was an exceptional time, and the Lord may, indeed, have introduced such an exceptional event.

It is also possible that God introduced some other trauma. For instance, the atmosphere is a relatively delicate veil against the absolute coldness of space. Should God have commanded even a small atmospheric aberration, temperatures could have fallen dramatically.

The Bible describes a strange wind passing over the Earth during the forty day period: We read, “And God made a wind to pass over the Earth” (Genesis 8:16). It is possible that this “wind” was a disruption in normal atmospheric conditions made by God to temporarily reduce its ability to retain heat from solar radiation, or it may have resulted from the passing of a cold comet tail. This wind passed over the Earth, implying that it was not an ordinary type of wind, but was induced by an external force. (see Figure 2)

Figure 2: Chronology of Noah's Flood.

Figure 2: Chronology of Noah’s Flood.

The crustal trauma that the earth experienced at this time could be explained by the gravitational attraction of an approaching extra terrestrial object. It is here postulated that the mass within the coma of a giant comet was sufficient to cause disruptions of the earth’s crust, resulting in an upward swelling and rupturing of the thin oceanic crust, together with a corresponding lowering of the continental areas. This would have triggered the opening of the Fountains of the Deep. See Figure 1.

Isostatic re‑adjustments below the crust would have caused liquid mantle rocks to flow from the continental areas into the oceanic regions to compensate for the rising of the crust. The juvenile waters that form a significant part of the liquid magma within the mantle and the inner core, being more mobile, would have displaced any void area below the ocean crust. This would have resulted in the Fountains of the deep being opened, allowing hot juvenile waters to be released into the atmosphere and oceans. The shifting of the crust in this way would have resulted in great, tsunami, tidal waves to sweep across the oceans and continents. Severe tsunami tidal waves can also occur after a severe Earthquake today.

 

If the thin oceanic crust were raised several hundreds of feet, the level of the ocean would likewise have risen by an equivalent amount. This would have caused giant tsunami tidal waves to sweep across the land areas. It is here assumed that the oceanic crust was raised and the continents were lowered sufficiently to allow the level of the ocean to cover the highest mountain peak by more than 22 feet. See Figure 1.

According to the New International Bible, the waters completely covered the land areas and the highest mountain to a depth of more than 20 feet. We read, “The waters rose greatly on the Earth, and all the high mountains under the entire heavens were covered. The waters rose and covered the mountains to a depth of more than twenty feet(Genesis 7:19‑20).

All the land animals, birds and Man perished in the Flood, except for those that were preserved in the Ark. We read, “And all flesh died that moved upon the Earth, both of fowl, and of cattle, and of beast, and of every creeping thing that creeps upon the Earth, and every man: and Noah only remained alive, and they that were with him in the Ark(Genesis 7:21 & 23b). “Then the Ark rested in the seventh month, the seventeenth day of the month on the mountains of Ararat” (Genesis 8:4)

The Bible says that it rained for 40 days and 40 nights, then God stopped the fountains of the deep and at the same instant the rain from heaven was restrained. We read, “The fountains also of the deep and the windows of heaven were stopped, and the rain from heaven was restrained. And the water returned from off the Earth continually. And after the end of the hundred and fifty days the waters were abated. And the Ark rested in the seventh month, on the seventeenth day of the month, upon the mountains of Ararat. And the waters decreased continually until the tenth month. In the tenth month, on the first day of the month, were the tops of the mountains seen” Genesis 8: 3,4,5). This passage does not say that the rain stopped, but that it was restrained. The clouds were not receiving the same source of water from the fountains of the deep any longer. (Figure 2)

 

The thin oceanic crust would have gradually subsided to where it was approximately prior to the Flood and the continents would have undergone dramatic rising and uplift. This would have allowed the waters to return off the Earth continually (Genesis 8:3). By the end of 155 days, which approximates to our April 17th, the Ark came to rest on Mount Ararat.

Mount Ararat is a 17,000 foot (15,793 meters) mountain in eastern Turkey near the border of land now occupied by Russia. At this moment in time it would appear as though Mount Ararat was higher than the surrounding mountains, because it was not till the tenth month, that the tops of the other mountains could be seen.

Dr. J. K. Charleworth.2 a famous British geologist, maintained that during the later part of the Pleistocene Age, the earth experienced major tectonic movements that affected about 70% of the total surface of the earth. He says, “The Pleistocene indeed witnessed earth movements on a considerable, even catastrophic scale. There is evidence that it created mountains and ocean deeps of a size previously unequalled…. it represents one of the crescendi in the earth’s tectonic history.” He maintains the Himalayan mountains were elevated by over 6,700 feet; the Caucasus Mountains by about 3,900 feet; mountains in northern China by about 10,000 feet; Central Asia by 6,700 feet.3 Modern geology can now place the timing of these major earth movements to a Post Pleistocene time or to Stage Three of the Flood.

The New Golden Age

The new “Golden Age” began the moment Noah and his family stepped out of the Ark on Mount Ararat. Then God spoke to Noah saying, “Go out of the Ark, you and your wife, and your sons and your sons’ wives with you. So Noah went out, and his sons and his wife, and his sons’ wives with him. Every beast, every creeping thing, every bird, and whatever creeps on the Earth, according to their families, went out of the Ark” (Genesis 8:15, 16, 18‑19).

One can imagine the strong emotional feelings that must have flooded the minds of Noah and his family as they stepped out of the Ark onto dry land. They knew that they were the only surviving human beings upon the Earth. A new world of opportunity lay before them. This was truly a time of beginning again for the human race.

For further information on the Flood Window & Pre-Flood window see Newsletters @ www.gira.ca

References

  1. “Earth’s Mantle below the Oceans,” by Enrico Bonatti. This paper is found in the Special Edition of Scientific American, September 26, 2005 edition of “Our Ever Changing EARTH,”  on pages 65-73.
  2. Professor J.K. Charlesworth, The Quaternary Era vol.1, pp. 604-606. Also see
  3. Filby Fredk.A., “The Flood Reconsidered: A review of the evidences of geology, archaeology, ancient literature and the Bible.” London, Pickering & Inglis Ltd., 1970. P. 4.

 

 

last updated: March 7, 2013
Copyright © 2010 Genesis International Research Association

Geological Evidences for Noah’s Flood in Calgary

There are two outstanding outcrop sites in Calgary, Alberta that I have identified as Flood Deposits. The Mazama volcanic ash is a major constituent of these deposits. The ash can be traced to Mount Mazama (Crater Lake) in the State of Oregon, USA. Geologists are able to trace this whitish ash into southern B.C. and as far northeast as the McMurray Tar Sands, Alberta and into areas of Saskatchewan. It is present throughout Montana and can be traced into Nevada and as far east as the State of Nebraska. This ash layer is a useful horizon marker throughout this entire region. The definite identification of the Mazama ash is its chemical composition and the refractive index of the volcanic glass.

The Mazama ash is dated by geologists at about 6,600 years before the present. (See www.Mazama ash.). This is a tentative not an absolute date. A slight correction to the carbon 14 dating method could change this date to anywhere from 6600 to 4500 years before the present.

The Mazama strata in Calgary have all the characteristics of a Flood Deposit. It is Post Pleistocene. Its timing is remarkably close to the Biblical Flood of Noah. On this basis and together with the record of geology worldwide (Figure 1), I am dating this ash and conglomeritic deposit at about 4,500 years before the present.

In most places throughout the world the Flood Disaster Scenario can be divided into three separate stages. The Mazama deposits in Calgary relate to Stages One & Two of Noah’s Disaster Flood Scenario. Stage Three deposits relate to the final stages of the Flood. It is characterized by widespread surface erosion. Stage Three is the result of a series of immense and powerful tidal waves (tsunami type) that swept across Calgary, all of North America and all of the world resulting in the cutting of deep channels and causing widespread surface erosion. The bottom of the Stage Three river channels have varying thicknesses of boulders, cobblestones, pebbles, sandstones, siltstones and clay deposits. The deposits differ from the Mazama deposits in that white volcanic ash and white calcareous precipitates are generally absent. There are reworked boulders, cobblestones and pebbles from Stage One that are deposited with them.

I believe all of the above mentioned surface deposits namely, Stage one, two and three are directly related to Noah’s Flood for the following reasons:

  1. The Masama deposits in Calgary are between a few inches in thickness to over 20 feet. They are quite widely distributed throughout the City, being absent in places due to erosion and / or non-deposition. They are lying upon an eroded surface of Pleistocene glacial till and /or glacial lake sediments that vary in thickness up to 150+ feet. The Pleistocene sediments are, in turn, resting upon a very uneven older erosional surface of the geologic formation called the Paskapoo Sandstone of Paleocene Age. The Paskapoo Sandstone outcrop in the Nose Hill Park and in the Coach Hill area. Many Paskapoo glacial erratics of light brown sandstone are found within the glacial till.
  2. The Masama deposits can be subdivided into two major units. The lower conglomerate unit relates to Stage One of Noah’s Flood. This lower unit consists of whitish gray sub-rounded boulders and cobblestones ranging from two inches to greater than two feet in diameter coated with a white, calcareous volcanic ash precipitate with a pebble-stone and sandy infill. This unit can be a few inches thick to over 5 feet. High energy conditions were required to have distributed these boulders over wide regional areas. Powerful tidal (tsunami) waves would have been necessary to carry these massive boulders to their resting place. A sharp break separates this lower unit from the underlying Glacial drift and glacial lake sediments. A sharp break also separates this unit from the overlying Stage Two deposit.
  3. Stage Two consists of a finer sequence of sandstone mixed with light gray to white colored volcanic ash and silty clay. It grades upwards into a whitish gray, silty clay with abundant volcanic ash in certain intervals. As the Flood waters quickly rose to greater depths, the erosive power of the Flood waters would have decreased on the earth’s surface. The deeper waters would have allowed the finer silts and clays to settle out last.
  4. During Stage Two of the Flood, the waters would have risen to great depths, thus allowing a period of relative calmness and Quiescence to prevail throughout the Earth. The Stage Two unit of the Masama deposit can be up to five feet in thickness. It is always eroded at the top, so may have been much thicker originally.
  5. During the initial time period of Stage One all land animals, land birds and Pre-Flood Man would have perished almost instantly. Water life such as invertebrates, fish, amphibians, reptiles, water mammals, water birds, microscopic forms of life would have been able to survive for the most part in a water environment. Geology has documented the sudden demise or extinctions of animal life at this time. Prior to about 4,500 years ago, in America alone, there were great herds of camel, horses, extinct species of buffalo, elephants such as the woolly mammoth and the mastodon, the sabre-tooth tiger, giant sloths, a lion, a pig six feet high etc. together with pre-Flood Man. They all mysteriously disappeared at this time in Alberta as well as throughout the world.
  6. Stage Three of the Flood witnessed the greatest and most dramatic erosive damage throughout the earth. As the Flood Waters began to decrease, there were various stages of still stand where shorelines were formed. For instance in England and Europe, geologists have described various mysterious shorelines above sea level. Some are over a thousand feet above sea level. These shorelines have been described in all areas of the world. Each time great crustal adjustments took place in ocean regions, powerful tsunami waves would have swept across the earth. See the article on “The Mechanics of the Flood.” in Newsletter vol.12, no.2 @ www.gira.ca
  7. During Stage Three numerous tsunami tidal waves would have carved extensive deep and shallow river channels in Calgary and elsewhere. These valley systems were at that time filled with rushing water. Deposits up to 10 to 20 feet or more of boulders, gravels, sands, silts and clays are often present at their base. Most of the Stage One and Stage Two Flood Deposits were in most places eroded away. It is, indeed, a miracle that any of the Stage One & Two deposits were preserved, because of the extensive and dramatic erosion that resulted from Stage Three. This becomes very noticeable when we observe the way Stage One & Two deposits have been truncated by deep river valleys. Some of the reworked boulders and gravels are remnants of Stage One. However, most of the boulders infilling these channels do not have a volcanic coating. Some of them have a characteristic slight reddish stain. This is also a regional and worldwide phenomenon of significant importance. (see article on China Tectites and reddish clays @ www.gira.ca,China)
  8. If geologists do not acknowledge the reality of Noah’s Flood, then they must explain where the large amounts of high-energy water came from to deposit these sediments and to cause the subsequent deep and widespread erosion. This all occurred Post Pleistocene, that is after the Ice Age till and glacial lake sediments had been deposited (Figure 1). Geologically, this event had to have occurred sometime within the last 6,000 years before the present.

Locations of Flood Deposits in Calgary

Presented here is a discussion of the evidence for flood deposits at two locations within Calgary: the Fish Creek Site, and Shouldice Park Site.

Fish Creek Site #1

The Fish Creek Site #1 is located within the Fish Creek Provincial Park between Woodlands and Evergreen in southwest Calgary. Take 24th St. south to Fish Creek parking lot. Then walk east to outcrop.

The Fish Creek Site #1 is located within the Fish Creek Provincial Park between Woodlands and Evergreen in southwest Calgary. Take 24th St. south to Fish Creek parking lot. Then walk east to outcrop.

clip_image004-1

Photo #1 of Fish Creek Flood Deposit: Direct evidences of Stages 1, 2 &, 3 are present on this photo. When beds 1&2 were deposited about 4500 years ago, they would have extended across the valley. The severe surface erosion resulting from Stage Three of the Flood is responsible for the formation of the Fish Creek Valley and the erosional truncation of beds 1 & 2.

clip_image002

Note: The sharp break at the base of Stage Two reveals the underlying boulders, cobblestones, pebbles, sands of Stage One that are all coated with varying amounts of white calcareous volcanic ash precipitate. The chemical composition and the reflective index of the volcanic glass serve for the definite identification of the Mazama ash.

clip_image004

Shouldice Park Site #2: Flood deposits

This map shows the location of the Shouldice Park Site.

clip_image006

 

Photo #5: This is a typical example of the Stage Two Flood Deposit at Shouldice Park site #1. It is about five feet thick and consists of finer fractions of sands and silts embedded in light gray clay that has varying amounts of whitish volcanic ash. Some thin white layers are very rich in volcanic ash. There are pebbles present near base. Stage One boulders underlie Stage two beds. It consists of boulders, cobblestones, pebbles and sands that are coated with varying amounts of a white calcareous volcanic (Mazama ash) precipitate. These boulders are in turn resting upon Glacial lake sediments and in other places boulder clay.

Photo #5: This is a typical example of the Stage Two Flood Deposit at Shouldice Park site #1. It is about five feet thick and consists of finer fractions of sands and silts embedded in light gray clay that has varying amounts of whitish volcanic ash. Some thin white layers are very rich in volcanic ash. There are pebbles present near base. Stage One boulders underlie Stage two beds. It consists of boulders, cobblestones, pebbles and sands that are coated with varying amounts of a white calcareous volcanic (Mazama ash) precipitate. These boulders are in turn resting upon Glacial lake sediments and in other places boulder clay.

Photo #6: shows the abundant boulders and gravels that have been eroded away from the Stage One beds. These have been strewn along the lower flanks of the valley mixing with the waters of the Bow River. The intensity of surface erosion resulting from Stage Three tsunami Tidal Waves have resulted in the widely incised river channel through which the Bow River presently flows.

Photo #6: shows the abundant boulders and gravels that have been eroded away from the Stage One beds. These have been strewn along the lower flanks of the valley mixing with the waters of the Bow River. The intensity of surface erosion resulting from Stage Three tsunami Tidal Waves have resulted in the widely incised river channel through which the Bow River presently flows.

 

Photo #7: Ornamental Rocks

Photo #7: Ornamental Rocks

Throughout the City of Calgary the Stage One boulders, cobblestones and pebbles are used for ornamental purposes in residential and business places. The city uses them to for ornamental purposes at cloverleaf intersections and for supporting LRT railways and much more. The above rocks were used by the city to support the LRT railway at Shawnessy.

last updated: March 7, 2013
Copyright © 2010 Genesis International Research Association

Mechanics of The Flood Disaster Scenario in Calgary

Space only provides a very brief explanation of the mechanics of the Flood Disaster Scenario. This scenario envisages two main stages of worldwide crustal movements with an intervening stage of relative quiescence referred to as Stage Two.

Figure 1: A Biblical and Geologically based chronology of the history of man.

Figure 1: A Biblical and Geologically based chronology of the history of man.

Stage One equates to the early part of the first 40 days as shown in Figure 2. It is characterized by the sudden eruption of many of the volcanoes along the west coast of North America and throughout the world. The volcanism would have been followed by heavy rainfall. The Bible record provides a clue in Genesis 7:11, “on that day all the fountains of the great deep (abyss) were broken up, and the windows of heaven (rain) were opened.” This resulted in the worldwide rupturing of the thin oceanic crust causing giant earthquake induced tidal waves (tsunami type) to sweep across North America. Great erosion damage would have taken place during the initial time span of Stage One of the Flood. All land life would have been destroyed almost instantly. Only partial water life would have perished. Reptiles, amphibians, fish, sea mammals and invertebrate sea life would have been able to survive, for the most part, in a Flood Disaster Scenario. (see Figures 1, 2, 3)

Figure 2: Chronology of Noah's Flood.

Figure 2: Chronology of Noah’s Flood.

Powerful tidal waves (Tsunami type) would explain how boulders, cobblestones and pebbles came to lie upon an older eroded geological strata. It would also explain why a white calcareous precipitate of volcanic ash is present on the boulders, cobblestones and gravels associated with Stage One of the Flood in Calgary. Leon Denison, a US geologist, has studied various areas along the western and interior regions of the USA. He has evidence to indicate that there were several volcanoes active at the same time (verbal communication). Not all areas in the world would have volcanic ash deposits. It so happens that Calgary and some other portions of Alberta were in the area where ash was deposited.

The sites of Pre-Flood Man in Alberta would have been partially or completely destroyed by powerful, giant (tsunami) tidal waves and currents. Artifacts of Man and pre-Flood animal remains have been found associated with Flood deposits in various parts of North America including Western Canada and the Yukon. The dismembered bones of pre-Flood animal life and the artifacts of pre-Flood Man would have been carried varying distances and re-deposited in sporadic areas by the swiftly flowing tsunami waters.

In Calgary, the Stage One Flood Deposits are found lying directly upon eroded Pleistocene glacial till or medium to light gray glacial lake sediments. This deposit consists of boulders up to 2 feet in diameter at the base mixed with cobblestones, pebbles and sands that are coated with a calcareous, white volcanic ash.

In Calgary, the Stage Two Flood Deposits relate to the deeper water, finer silts and clays. As the Flood Waters reached their maximum level, only clays and silts would have continued to be deposited in a relatively calm, quiescent environment. We read, “For forty days the flood kept coming on the earth, and as the waters increased they lifted the ark high above the earth. The waters rose and increased greatly on the earth.” (Genesis 7:17-18)

It is postulated that a giant comet provided the mechanism that triggered the dramatic disruption of the earth’s crust. This resulted in fountains of lava & water to erupt and for rain to fall for the first 40 day period of the Flood (Figures 2 & 3). Some comets and their coma tails are estimated to be over 50 million miles in length. The Bible says, “God made a wind to pass over the earth.” (Genesis 8:1) It is here postulated that it took the tail of the comet 40 days to pass by the earth.

Stage Two: As the Flood waters reached their maximum levels there would have been a period of relative calmness or quiescence throughout the earth. At this time the mechanism that triggered the crustal disruption would have passed on. This would have allowed the earth’s crust to begin to restore to its original isostatic equilibrium state. We read, “And the waters subsided. The fountains of the deep were stopped and the rain from heaven was restrained.” (Genesis 8:1-2) The implication here is that when the doors of the earth were closed, then the waters began to subside.

Stage Three: Dr. J. K. Charleworth.2 a famous British geologist, maintained that during the later part of the Pleistocene, the earth experienced major tectonic movements that affected about 70% of the total surface of the earth. He says, “The Pleistocene indeed witnessed earth movements on a considerable, even catastrophic scale. There is evidence that it created mountains and ocean deeps of a size previously unequalled…. it represents one of the crescendi in the earth’s tectonic history.” He maintains the Himalayan mountains were elevated by over 6,700 feet; the Caucasus Mountains by about 3,900 feet; mountains in northern China by about 10,000 feet; Central Asia by 6,700 feet.2 Modern geology can now place the timing of these major earth movements to a Post Pleistocene time or to Stage Three of the Flood.

In the early stages of the Flood, I estimate that the tectonic forces would have allowed the continents and mountains to lower as the thin oceanic crust was elevated in various places by several hundreds and even thousands of feet. This would explain why the ocean waters were able to cover the highest mountains.

Stage Three commenced with a gradual lowering of the sea level. This was due to a series of isostatic, crustal re-adjustments that led to the lowering of the thin oceanic crust. This resulted in the flow of mantle rock back to the continental regions in order for the earth to establish isostatic equilibrium once again. This associated tectonic readjustment would have caused dramatic uplifting of the continents and mountain regions throughout the earth. This would also explain the many recently formed shoreline terraces that can be observed at many different levels from sea level up to several thousand feet above sea level. Many of these ancient shorelines have been documented in the geological literature throughout the earth. As an example, in 1956, I was on a geological field Party between Jasper and Banff where the Foothills meet the Rocky Mountains. We observed several of these shorelines which meant the sea level had to have been higher than the Foothills and Plains to the east at the time they were formed.

There were obviously many still-stand periods of the sea with in-between rapid decreases of water levels. When a still-stand took place a shoreline would form. The rapid decrease of the water levels would have been associated with sudden earthquakes resulting in giant tsunami tidal waves that would have swept across the land surfaces causing extensive erosion and re-deposition of sediments each time they occurred. This would also explain why there are many wide river channels on the earth’s surface today that were at one time filled with rushing water. Presently, there is generally a small little stream meandering in its lower parts.

 

 

 

last updated: March 7, 2013
Copyright © 2010 Genesis International Research Association

Early Man in the Black Sea Region

The term “Early Man” in this Newsletter relates to the people who lived prior to Noah’s Flood. Archaeology and anthropology would relate the term “Early Man” to the Great Stone Age period that in turn can be divided into the Paleolithic, Mesolithic and the Neolithic ages. We consider Egypt as the type section for determining when the Great Stone Age period came to a sudden termination.

Newsletter, Vol. 12, No. 2, (see www.gira.ca) relates the geology, archaeology and anthropology of East Africa with the Egyptian Type Section. Past Newsletters have also shown how other site-specific areas of the Middle East and Europe are remarkably compatible to Egypt. This Newsletter, will be relating the Egyptian Type Section to the Black Sea region.

The Black Sea & The Flood

Two distinguished earth scientists William Ryan and Walter Pitman at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Massachusetts, USA published a book in 1998 called, “Noah’s Flood.” 1 After reviewing this book, I have found it to be scientifically and geologically sound. It is the basis for this paper. I trust it will stimulate the reader to purchase a copy of this book for their edification.

If Noah’s Flood is a true historical and geological event, would one expect to find evidences of this catastrophic event in the Black Sea region? Two distinguished USA scientists, Ryan and Pitman believe they have scientific evidence for Noah’s Flood occurring about 7,500 years before the present. They imply that the Black sea Flood occurred during the Neolithic age, which is the age of polished stone. The date of 7,500 is based upon the latest cyrogenic vacuum device of C14 dating.

In Genesis International Research, we favor a date closer to 4,500 years before the present. This view is based primarily upon the Egyptian Type Section, which reveals that the Flood of Noah brought the Neolithic age in Egypt to a drammatic close about 4,500 years before the present (see Newsletter vol.12, no.2 @www.gira.ca). This view is also supported by the geological record that in turn is based upon work done by Pleistocene geologists in America and Europe who categorized the last 10,000 years of earth’s history into the Anathermal, Altithermal and Medithermal ages (Figure 1). This terminolgy is also remarkably compatible with the Biblical record.

Figure 1: A Biblical and Geologically based chronology of the history of man.

Figure 1: A Biblical and Geologically based chronology of the history of man.

These above mentioned dates of 7,500 and 4,500 years are remarkably in the same ballpark. Further research will undoubtedly bring them closer together, revealing that they are products of the same catastrophic event, because they are both underlain by sediments of Neolithic age.

The Black Sea is a huge inland basin underlain by a thin oceanic crust and is over 6,000 feet deep. It is now surrounded by continental crust on all sides. It is fed by numerous large fresh water rivers. Its inflow of fresh water exceeds it evaporation. Its only fresh water outlet is southward to the Mediterranean through the narrow bottleneck of the Bosporus Strait. Below the upper column of fresh water that is flowing southward is marine salt water that is flowing northward from the Mediterranean (Aegean Sea) through the Bosporus Strait into the Black Sea.

Black Sea Surveys

Much valuable research has now been conducted within the Black Sea and in surrounding regions. In 1967, a team of geologists and chemists at the renowned Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution on Cape Cod, Massachusetts had hoped to follow up on earlier discoveries at Port Said in Egypt. As a result of the 1967 Egyptian / Israeli war, this project was cancelled, then diverted to the Black Sea. This survey was led by David Ross and Egon Degens.1 Their ship the Atlantis 11 was used for mapping and sampling the seabed of the Black Sea in 1969 (see Figure 2).

Ross and Degens reported that the top 40 inches of the first core sample was a soft dark black, jelly like mud. Below this was hard light gray clay. Everywhere they went to recover additional core, the sequence of black mud overlying light gray clay was the same. The black mud had abundant organic animal and plant remains indicative of a marine environment. The light gray clay had minimal organic plant and animal remains indicative of a fresh water, dry land environment.

Ross and Degens came to the following conclusions as reported by Ryan & Pitman, “In the past the Black Sea had transformed itself into a lake; it was linked to the Mediterranean only by a narrow outlet not deep enough to permit the continued entry of marine water from outside. This condition had been established more than 20,000 years ago when ice sheets covered Scandinavia, northern Europe, and all of Canada. The building of continent sized glaziers to a mile or more in thickness, as first envisioned by Loius Agassiz, had caused the withdrawal of global sea level below the level of the floor of the Dardenelles and Bosporus Straits. When the ice over Russia eventually began to thaw, much of its meltwater was delivered into the Black Sea’s Ice Age Lake. The light gray clay in Ross and Degens’s cores came from the melt water as a milky suspension via the Danube, Dnieper, Dniester,and the Don rivers. Eventually there came a time when the giant lake turned back into a saltwater lake.” They go on to say, “This event was marked in the Atlantis II sediment cores by the abrupt change from light gray clay to black mud and by the simultaneous disappearance of the skeletal remains of freshwater organisms and their replacement by creatures that lived only in brackish water or salt water.” 3 In other words they were observing a rapid faunal replacement. What could have caused this rapid change and how long ago did it occur?

Figure 1: Early Man in the Black Sea Region

Figure 1: Early Man in the Black Sea Region

This was the logical explanation that Ross and Degenss perceived. They did detect a recent rapid faunal replacement from continental to marine from the core data, however, this was a year before the Glomar Challenger scientists had discovered the catastrophic in flow of sea water through the Strait of Gibralter into the Mediterranean. Ross and Egens had no reason to suspect any catastrophic inflow of salt water from the Mediterranean into the Black Sea. They based their interpretation upon traditional thinking.

They were unaware that the Russian scientists had previously stumbled on a valuable clue. The Soviets built a bridge across the Kerch Strait. This Strait is four miles wide and twenty miles long. It connects the Sea of Azov with the north part of the Black Sea. The engineers drilled a series of holes to learn the depth to bedrock. They discovered a deep channel more than 200 feet deep beneath the Straits bottom. This deep channel was infilled with sand, gravel, and snails diagnostic of a terrestrial streambed. They concluded that the entire Sea of Azov was formerly a dry tract across which a river would have had to cut its valley for more than 100 miles in order to reach the shoreline of the shrinking Black Sea. Directly above the light gray dry clay was a dark gray marine mud.

The Soviets realized this entire dry land had been suddenly inundated with sea water. There was a complete faunal replacement from a desert to fairly deep water marine molluska fauna that had come in from the Mediterranean. Its explanation remained a mystery.

 

 

last updated: February 27, 2013
Copyright © 2010 Genesis International Research Association

The Magnitude of the Black Sea Flood

Ryan and Pitman began a quest to determine the magnitude of this flood. How big was the flood, how long did it last, at what rate did the water rush in and the lake rise, and how rapidly must one have fled to escape drowning? What was its hydraulic head at the outset of the flooding? How is it possible to measure the height, width, length and depth of the Bosporus opening?

They compared the Bosporus Strait as a dam similar to the giant Hoover Dam that impounded about ten cubic miles of water in its Lake Mead reservoir. They imagined cutting a gash through the dam from top to bottom. The water rushing through would be a summation of all the pressures from top to bottom. As the flood waters pour out, the surface level of Lake Mead continually drops. And the integrated pressures would drop accordingly. In a few days the lake waters would flow down through the Colorado River into the Pacific Ocean raising global sea level no more than a hundreth of an inch.

The imagined cutting a gash in the Bosporus Strait. The discharge of water would remain strong. There would be no drop in the head water feeding the flood. The waters impounded by the Mediterranean, the Atlantic, and all the interconnected oceans would be so vast. It would be infinite in its availability. They say, “Any enlargement of the opening of the dam would only increase the rate of inflow to the Black Sea, and the flow would slow only when the level of the Black sea rose to cover the inlet and decrease the effective height of the waterfall.”(Ryan & Pitman, 1999;p153)

They realized that isostatic adjustments of the earth’s crust throughout Europe in the last 12,000 years must be considered in order to understand the height of the Bosporus dam, the level of sea water relative to the level of water in the Black Sea at the time of the flood or when the dam broke lose.

References

William Ryan & Walter Pitman, “Noah’s Flood” with the caption, “The New Scientific Discoveries About the Event That Changed History,” produced by Simon & Schuster, New York, 1999. All references are to be found in Ryan & Pitman’s book, “Noah’s flood.” Ross and Degens survey aboard the Atlantis 11 in 1969 is also referenced in this book.

 

last updated: February 27, 2013
Copyright © 2010 Genesis International Research Association