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Intelligent Design

There is a remarkable compatibility between the Geological and the Biblical records. Sophisticated scientific research has now confirmed that the order of creation outlined in the Genesis account corresponds to the geological record (Figure 1). The geological record also confirms the Biblical plan that God has for the Earth. Both records enhance each other.

According to the Bible, God planned, created, formed and made the Earth according to a plan and purpose. The plan is presented in Isaiah 45:18, “Thus says the Lord, who created (bara) the heavens (Shomayim), who is God, who formed (yatsar) the earth and made (asah) it, who established (kun) it, who did not create (bara) it in vain (that is without a purpose), who formed (yatsar) it to be inhabited: I am the Lord, and there is no other.” The Hebrew word kun means to come forth with a plan. The plan and purpose was that the Earth would be a place of habitation and that Earth’s inhabitants would give honour and glory to their Intelligent Designer and Creator as a result of observing the greatness of His creation and adhering to His Word. Revelations 4:11 says, “You are worthy, O Lord, to receive glory and honor and power, for you created all things and by Your will they exist and were created.” We read in Isaiah 43:7, “Everyone who is called by my name, whom I have created for My glory, I have formed him, yes, I have made him.” Certain details of this plan as evidenced by geology are discussed in the book, “Bridging The Gap: The First 6 Days”, by Don Daae which is available through Genesis International Research Association.

Twenty two major events that the Earth has experienced from inception to the present can now be supported by the sciences of astronomy and geology and the Bible record. The first two events are supported by the science of astronomy, the remaining twenty events by geology.

The First Day of Creation

Astronomy maintains the universe had a beginning. The Bible maintains the universe had a beginning (Genesis 1:1).
Astronomy maintains the universe is expanding. The Bible maintains the universe is expanding (Isaiah 42:5 & 44:24).
Geology maintains the Earth had a beginning. (Figure 1). The Bible maintains the Earth had a beginning. (Genesis 1:1).
Geology maintains the Earth began in a gaseous state (Fig. 1). The Bible maintains the Earth began in a gaseous state (Genesis 1:2a).
Geology speaks about the Earth’s Foundations (Fig. 1). The Bible speaks about the Earth’s Cornerstone & Foundations. (Job 38:4-6).
Geology verifies the sudden appearance of the ocean waters at the beginning of the Proterozoic Age after the Earth’s Foundations had been established (Fig. 1). The Bible pinpoints the sudden, dramatic Birth of the Oceans to a time after the Earth’s Foundations had been laid and before the Origin of Life.
Geology pinpoints the Origin of Life to the beginning of the Proterozoic Age; and confirms the sudden appearance of thousands of marine bacteria & algae (sea weed & plankton) species throughout the Proterozoic; and the dramatic Big Bang Explosion of Marine Animal Life at the beginning of the Cambrian Age (Fig.1). The Bible pinpoints the Origin of Life during the First Day to a time immediately after the Birth of the Oceans (Genesis 1:2).
Geology pinpoints the first occurrence of death to the beginning of the Proterozoic Age after ocean waters appeared on the Earth (Fig. 1). The Bible ascribes the Origin of Sin & Death to the First Day of Creation prior to the Birth of the Oceans and after the Earth’s Foundations were laid.

The Second & Third Days of Creation

Geology confirms the presence of a Greenhouse Effect on the earth during the Ordovician through to the end of the Carboniferous Age (Figure 1). The Bible confirms the presence of a Greenhouse Effect upon the Earth throughout the Second & Third Days of Creation.
Geology confirms that one super continent called Pangaea and one super ocean called Panthalasia were present during the Upper Silurian through to the end of the carboniferous. The Bible confirms the presence of one super land mass and one super ocean during the Third Day.
Geology confirms the Plate Tectonics/ Continental Drift Theory and specifies the time that the breakage and separation of the continents took place. The Bible confirms the Plate Tectonics/ Continental Drift Theory as it supports the presence of one super ocean and one super continent during the Third Day, whereas today there are six continents and five oceans.
Geology describes & confirms the first sudden appearance of many species of land plants during the Upper Silurian through to the end of the Carboniferous. The Bible confirms the sudden appearance of land plants during the Third Day.

The Fourth Day of Creation

Geology confirms the dissolution of the Greenhouse Effect and the establishment of season’s at the beginning of the Permian (Fig. 1). The Bible confirms the dissolution of the Greenhouse Effect during the Fourth Day and the establishment of season’s.

The Fifth Day of Creation

Geology confirms the Age of the Dinosaurs and the sudden appearances of about 90% of bird species from Triassic through to the end of the Cretaceous. The Bible confirms the creation of Tanniynim which can be translated as great water monsters or long thin stretched out things like a serpent. This description could very well relate to the dinosaurs. Secondly, it describes the creation of flying things (oaf) that could well describe both the flying reptiles and the many bird species.
Geology confirms the dramatic extinctions of the dinosaurs at the end of the Cretaceous Age. The Bible confirms the end of the Fifth Day and the sudden beginning of a new Day called the Sixth Day. The inference is that during the Sixth Day a new type of land animal life was being created that was distinctly different from the Fifth Day.

The Sixth Day of Creation

Geology confirms the sudden appearance of multitude species of warm blooded mammals and creeping things throughout the Tertiary and Quaternary Ages (Figure1). The Bible confirms the creation of the Beasts of the Earth and Creeping Things during the Sixth Day, then describes many of them.
Geology confirms the first appearance of cattle and Man towards the end of the Quaternary Age or more specifically during the Anathermal Age (Figure 2). The Bible confirms the creation of cattle and the creation of Man and woman as God’s crowning and final acts of Creation which brought the Sixth Day to an end.

The Seventh Day

Geology confirms the dearth of any new animal species during the Anathermal and Medithermal Ages (see Figure 2). The Bible confirms that God ceased His work of Creation immediately after creating Adam and Eve at which time He entered into His rest which is called the Seventh Day. We are presently living in the Seventh Day which began about 6,000 plus years ago.
Geology confirms the Anathermal Age is characterized by exceptionally warm and moist conditions. It was a time of lush vegetation throughout the earth where the great desert areas of the earth were greatly diminished or had ceased to exist. This was an opportune time for God to establish a beautiful Garden of Eden for Adam and Eve. Geology pinpoints the most logical location for the Garden of Eden as being in the vicinity of the Caspian Sea and eastward. The Bible description of the Garden of Eden fits the geological framework as to time and location (Genesis 2:8-14).
Geology and Climatology confirms a distinct drying of the climate and the incipient growth of modern desert areas during the Altithermal Age (Figure 2). The Bible confirms that God placed a curse upon the ground at the Fall of Adam and Eve as recorded in Genesis 3:17 “Cursed is the ground because of you; It will produce thorns and thistles for you.” Here thorns and thistles are an indication of the commencement of drier and more arid conditions.
Geology confirms the physical death of Man (Homo sapien) as evidenced by fossil remains that are first found in sediments of the Altithermal Age and the subsequent Flood and Medithermal Ages (Figure 2). The Bible confirms the spiritual and physical Fall of Man as a result of Adam’s sin. This resulted in his physical death and the physical death of all his descendants as evidenced by the fossil record.
Geology confirms the physical evidences (sedimentary deposits) of a worldwide Flood occurring at the end of the Altithermal Age (Figure 2). The Bible confirms that the worldwide Flood of Noah took place about 4,500 years before the present.

These twenty two significant Biblical events can now be verified by the science of geology and astronomy. The reader is requested to find greater details in Don Daae’s book, “Bridging the Gap: The First 6 Days”, the past Genesis International Research Newsletters, “Bridging The Gap” as well as new information that will soon be on the GIRA Website at www.gira.ca. It is now evident that there is an Intelligent Plan that has been operating throughout the entire history of the Earth. This points towards an an all powerful Intelligent Designer and Creator. The probability that the above twenty two events could have come about by chance would be essentially nil. In spite of these extreme odds, the religion of naturalism refuses to acknowledge a plan, purpose or design in nature. They say the universe and the earth have come into existence by a meaningless, purposeless, chance, evolutionary process and that all design in nature is only apparent. It is now time for science and the Intelligent Design Theory to reconquer the higher ground that was lost in the days of Charles Darwin.

last updated: March 8, 2013
Copyright © 2010 Genesis International Research Association

Our GIRA Interpretation

I will now present our Genesis International Research Association, “GIRA Interpretation.” It is based upon the premise that God has given Mankind two records. They are the Record of the Bible and the Record of Geology which is the record of the Earth’s history. We will now examine each Creation Day to see whether these two records are compatible. See Figure A-1.

The First Creation Day

The Biblical First Day of Creation is shown to relate directly to the geological Pre-Cambrian and the Cambrian Ages in Figure A-1. We read in Genesis 1:1-2 NIV, “In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. Now the earth was formless and empty, darkness was over the surface of the deep, and the Spirit of God was hovering over the waters.”

This darkness is the first clue that Lucifer had already fallen during the early part of the First Day of Creation. We read, “God is light; in Him there is no darkness at all.” in 1John 1:5 NIV. Darkness in the Bible record is always associated with sin and evil. We then read, “And God said, “Let there be light,” and there was light. God saw that the light was good, and He separated the light from the darkness. God called the light “day,” and the darkness he called “night.” And there was evening, and there was morning—the first day.” NIV Genesis 1:1-5.

What is important to notice in this passage is that God could only call the light good, because the darkness was symbolic of evil resulting from Lucifer’s Fall. On the basis of the Rule of First Mention, this is the first clue that the Fall of Lucifer had already taken place during the First Creation Day.

Figure A-1: This is a history of the Earth chart. It shows the remarkable compatibility that exists between the Bible Record on the right with the conventional Geological Record on the left. This figure was generated by Don Daae. P.Geol. Also see www.gira.ca.

Figure A-1: This is a history of the Earth chart. It shows the remarkable compatibility that exists between the Bible Record on the right with the conventional Geological Record on the left. This figure was generated by Don Daae. P.Geol. Also see www.gira.ca.

The First Day of Creation in Figure A-1 is shown to relate directly to the Precambrian and the Cambrian Ages. The Precambrian Age is in turn divided into the Hadean, Archean and the Proterozoic Ages.

The big question arises can the long geological ages be trusted. I would like to quote Dr. Roger C. Wiens1 who says, “Radiometric dating — the process of determining the age of rocks from the decay of their radioactive elements—has been in widespread use for over half a century. There are over forty such techniques, each having a different way of measuring them. It has become increasingly clear that these radiometric dating techniques agree with each other and as a whole, present a coherent picture in which the earth was created a very long time ago. Many Christians are completely unaware of the great number of laboratory measurements that have shown these methods to be consistent, and they are also unaware that Bible-believing Christians are among those actively involved in radioactive dating.”

The Hadean Age

God through His Son spoke the Earth into existence by the power of His Word about 4.7+ billion years ago. Genesis 1:2a says, “The earth was formless and empty” (NIV). At the moment of creation, the Earth was created in an extremely hot gaseous or formless state. It was during this early period of time that God began to lay the cornerstone and the foundation of the Earth. In Job 38: 1-6, God presented Job with a very interesting set of questions saying, “Where were you when I laid the earth’s foundation? Tell me, if you understand. Who marked off its dimensions? Surely you know! Who stretched a measuring line across it? On what were its footings set, or who laid its cornerstone” (NIV).

The moment a solid crystalline crust began to form on the early Earth, marks the end of the Hadean Age and the beginning of the Archean Age.

Figure A-2: Illustrates the Geological history of the Earth from the beginning of the Hadean Age to the end of the Cambrian. It shows the approximate time the First Garden of Eden came into existence. It shows when Earth’s First Inhabitants arrived. It also shows when the Fall of Lucifer took place and when ocean waters first appeared on Earth. A sophisticated food chain was established during the Proterozoic Age prior to the creative explosion of animal Life during the Cambrian Age. Compare with Figure A-1. Constructed by Don Daae and Computer generated by Mike Gilders.

Figure A-2: Illustrates the Geological history of the Earth from the beginning of the Hadean Age to the end of the Cambrian. It shows the approximate time the First Garden of Eden came into existence. It shows when Earth’s First Inhabitants arrived. It also shows when the Fall of Lucifer took place and when ocean waters first appeared on Earth. A sophisticated food chain was established during the Proterozoic Age prior to the creative explosion of animal Life during the Cambrian Age. Compare with Figure A-1. Constructed by Don Daae and Computer generated by Mike Gilders.

The Archean Age

The Archean Age spans a length of time of about 0.8 billion years based upon radioactive dating. The rocks of this age consist of a large variety of igneous crystalline rocks. According to geology the ocean waters did not appear on the earth until the very end of this age. In the continental regions today about 70% of the Archean igneous rocks are of a granite type of rock that are intruded with many other types of igneous and volcanic rocks. Where the crust is thinner such as in ocean areas, the igneous rocks are of a dark basalt or andesite type.

What was the Earth like during the Archean Age?

According to the Bible account, the Earth would have appeared from a distance like a beautiful gemstone. A beautiful Primordial Garden called Eden was prepared by God for the Earth’s First Inhabitants. They were Lucifer and angels under his jurisdiction.

A description of this Garden of Eden is given in Ezekiel 28:13-15, “You (Lucifer) were in Eden, the Garden of God; every precious stone was your covering, the sardius, the topaz, and the diamond, the beryl, the onyx, and jasper, the sapphire, the emerald with gold. The workmanship of your timbrels and pipes was prepared in you in the day that you were created. You were the anointed cherub that covers, and I established you. You were upon the Holy Mountain of God; You walked back and forth IN THE MIDST OF THE FIRERY STONES. You were perfect in your ways from the day you were created, till iniquity (sin) was found in you.” It is also confirmed by the science of geology that all of these precious gemstones are present in the crystalline rocks of the Archean Age.

This gives a brief insight and description into the grandeur and beauty of this ancient Primordial Garden called Eden that existed during the long Archean Age. It also gives an insight into the appearance and character of Lucifer before the Fall. Lucifer was a being of great beauty as the scripture relates, “You were the seal of perfection, full of wisdom and perfect in beauty” (Ezekiel 28;12b). This verse reflects the inner beauty and character of Lucifer before His Fall. It also reflects the beauty and serenity within this Garden. It was a place of perfect peace, beauty and safety. It was a place of worship, because all of God’s angelic beings worship and glorify Him. It was also a place of music and singing for we read, “The workmanship of your timbrels and pipes were prepared for you on the day that you were created.” (Ezekiel 28:13b) This is the picture of the Earth during the long Archean Age on the Earth. It would have been a most enticing, beautiful, loving and warm place to visit.

It was at the end of the Archean Age that the greatest tragedy of tragedy took place. Something happened to change the Earth forever.

The Edenic Curse

What tragedy could have changed the earth forever? Sin was found in the heart of Lucifer. As a result of this tragic occurrence, the Earth became a dark sin cursed planet. This was the commencement of the Edenic Curse.

The Bible tells us that it was pride that caused Lucifer to sin. He was one of the Cherubim of Heaven and was of great physical and spiritual beauty: “Your heart was lifted up because of your beauty, you corrupted your wisdom for the sake of your splendor” (Ezekiel 28:17). Sin corrupted Lucifer’s entire being body, soul and spirit. He was no longer a creature full of wisdom, but now his wisdom was corrupted and became as foolishness. The Bible says that he rose up in violence against Almighty God who created him for we read, “Through your widespread trade you were filled with violence” Ezekiel 28:16 (NIV).

He was no longer the loving, considerate, mild cherub, but now he became as a roaring, violent lion. He was no longer willing to submit his will to the Most High God, but now began to exert his own will and to begin a life of sin in an opposite direction to what he had known before. He wanted everyone to become like himself and wasn’t satisfied until he had deceived many of the angels in his realm to likewise commit sin as the following record testifies in Ezekiel 28:18 (NIV), “by your many sins and dishonest trade you have desecrated your sanctuaries” (NIV). These sanctuaries soon became places of darkness and evil.

It was at this moment in time that God pronounced judgment upon Lucifer and his fallen angels which is described in Ezekiel 28:16-19. This beautiful primordial Garden of Eden was removed by God from the Earth. It is believed that God destroyed all evidences of this beautiful garden by fire and great heat. The Earth at this time also became a place of spiritual darkness because of Lucifer’s sin.

It was also at this point in time that Lucifer became known as the Evil One, the Devil and Satan and the fallen angels became known as demons or evil spirits. God cast them into the realm of darkness that now began to surround the earth. The Bible refers to Satan as a ruler of the air for we read in Ephesians 2:2, that Satan is “the ruler of the kingdom of the air, the spirit who now is at work in those who are disobedient” (NIV).

Geologists who have studied the Archean rocks of this age, which I have had the privilege of doing, realize that the Archean came to a dramatic termination as a result of great heat. The rocks of this age were melted and cut by many intrusive igneous and volcanic type of rocks. The Earth at this time became a dark sinned cursed planet.

God’s New Plan for the Earth

It was at this moment in time that God looked forward through the corridors of time. He foresaw the unfolding of the entire geological history of the earth from the Proterozoic to the present. He foresaw the future Second Garden of Eden that He would one future day prepare for Adam and Eve. He also foresaw the Cross. God knew that the only way that the sin issue could be dealt with and eventually eradicated on Earth was for His only Son to one day die on a cruel cross where He would shed His sinless blood and experience death for the sins of the world. God at this time determined that He would give Adam and Eve the choice to either receive Him or to reject to reject Him. This is the same choice that you and I and every person who has ever lived must make. Our choice determines where our future destination will be.

He also looked beyond this present Earth where He would one day create a new Heaven and a New Earth. The beauty and magnificence of this future Earth will far surpass the beauty and elegance of the Hadean Age. We read in 1Corinthians 2:9 NIV, “No eye has seen, no ear has heard, no mind has conceived what God has prepared for those who love him.”

The Proterozoic Age

Figure A-3 relates the record of geology to the First Day of Creation. The science of geology has verified that the Proterozoic water laid sediments of the First Day are often up to 20,000 to 30,000 feet (6,096-9,144 m) in thickness within the great basin regions on Earth. Where ever these sediments have not experienced diagenetic destruction resulting from great heat generated due to mountain building processes fossil life in the form of algae and bacteria are present from bottom to top.

Figure A-3: West of Calgary, Alberta Canada, the Proterozoic sediments at Lake Louise are about 20,000 feet (6,096m) thick. This unit increases to about 30,000 feet (9,144) in thickness to the west of Golden B.C. The overlying Cambrian sediments are about 10,000 feet (3,048m) in thickness around Lake Louise increasing to about 13,000 feet (3,962m) at Mount Robson near the town of Jasper. Figure by Don Daae.

Figure A-3: West of Calgary, Alberta Canada, the Proterozoic sediments at Lake Louise are about 20,000 feet (6,096m) thick. This unit increases to about 30,000 feet (9,144) in thickness to the west of Golden B.C. The overlying Cambrian sediments are about 10,000 feet (3,048m) in thickness around Lake Louise increasing to about 13,000 feet (3,962m) at Mount Robson near the town of Jasper. Figure by Don Daae.

There are two prerequisites that plant and animal life require in order to survive. They are water and bacteria. Geology confirms the presence of ocean water at the beginning of the Proterozoic Age. Geology also confirms that these oldest Proterozoic sediments contain bacteria and blue green algae. Where did the bacteria and algae come from? Did they evolve by an unintelligent, evolutionary process or were they created and formed by an Almighty Creator God?

Blue green algae are prokaryote chlorophyll generating water plants. They first appear at the base of the Proterozoic sediments together with bacteria. The more complex eukaryotic Green algae appear during the mid portion of this age. Then the eukaryotic red and brown algae appear near the upper portions of the Proterozoic.

However, once the different algae species appear, they have continued to propagate themselves practically unchanged to the present. The fact that they appear suddenly in the fossil record, fully developed and specialized, gives credence to Special Creation. Barghoorn2 stated, “Many living species [today] are almost indistinguishable in structure from species that flourished a billion or more years ago.” Towards the end of the Proterozoic Age the oceans of the Earth were essentially modern. God was in the process of establishing a food chain in preparation for the arrival of animal life.

Within the upper portion of the Proterozoic sediments, scientists have found the first evidence of animal life. A distinct species of a jelly fish, a sponge, traces of worm burrowing and traces of shelly fragments that may relate to a fourth species have been found. This is indicative of the first created animal life on Earth. See Figure A-4. These 4 species would represent the first appearance of 4 new animal phyla.

Figure A-4: the Cambrian Geological Window is shown in light blue. The narrow Cambrian Explosion of Animal life window is shown in orange. The first animal life on earth appeared at the end of the most grandiose Ice Age the Earth has ever experienced. It is referred to as the Late Proterozoic Glaciation. Constructed by Don Daae & computer generated by Mike Gilders.

Figure A-4: the Cambrian Geological Window is shown in light blue. The narrow Cambrian Explosion of Animal life window is shown in orange. The first animal life on earth appeared at the end of the most grandiose Ice Age the Earth has ever experienced. It is referred to as the Late Proterozoic Glaciation. Constructed by Don Daae & computer generated by Mike Gilders.

However, it was within the overlying Cambrian Age sediments that an amazing creative event took place.

The Cambrian Age

It was during the Lower Cambrian Age that startling changes took place. The sediments of this age within the great basins regions of the Earth are often up to 10,000+ feet (3,048+m) in thickness. Could this be the product of Noah’s Flood? Let us see. See Figure A-3.

The Cambrian geological window is shown in light blue on Figures A-2 & A-4. The Cambrian Period began about 543 million years ago and ended about 510 million years ago, an interval of about 33 million years.

It was during the Lower Cambrian Age that the dramatic “Cambrian Explosion of Animal Life” took place. This event changed our planet overnight. Many leading scientists are saying that about 40+ disparate architectural body plans (phyla) of new animal life came into existence in what is often referred to as a geological instant. Within each phyla, God created new species. The late paleontologist and expert on Cambrian animal life Stephen J. Gould3 says, “Some fifteen to twenty Burgess species cannot be allied with any known group, and should probably be classified as separate phyla.”3 Today there are 30 known phyla. Gould and other leading scientists are saying that it is reasonable to say that 30+15= 45+ phyla were present during this Cambrian event. This all took place within a 5 million year window.

The December, 1995 issue of Time magazine entitled this event, “When Life Exploded.” It described the sudden explosion of animal life as an amazing frenzy that changed our planet overnight. The Burgess Shale discovery is indeed one of the most significant discoveries in the world. It has also caused scientists to re-examine their traditionally held interpretations of life on Earth.

What is the Significance of the Cambrian Explosion of Animal life?

One of God’s most exciting and significant works in the geological history of the Earth is known as the, Cambrian Explosion of Animal Life. It is sometimes referred to as Biology’s Big Bang. This event is special, because it was at this point in time that God established a plan for all future animal life on this earth. Geologically, this event took place about 525 million years ago during what geologists call the Lower Cambrian age.

Geology confirms that this was an opportune time for animals to appear. A highly sophisticated food chain consisting of many thousands of species of algae (sea weeds and plankton) together with bacteria had now been fully established within the ocean waters of the Earth. Abundant food was now available for these many animal species.

There are two places in the world where these fossils are remarkably preserved. One site is at Field, B.C. in Western Canada. The other site is at the Chengjiang Site in southern China. The fossils at both sites are remarkably well preserved. Even some of the internal soft body parts such as the digestive tract, muscle fibre and gut have been preserved. It is indeed a miracle of God that this particular geological window has been preserved throughout these many millions of years.

What is a Species?

When analyzing the life within the three Major Kingdoms of animal, plant and bacteria/viral life, only a species has the ability to reproduce fertile offspring from generation to generation. In other words, all animal, plant, bacteria & viral life on Earth today belong to a specific species. Every species has a unique body plan called a phylum. Figure A-5.

The groupings such as genus, family, order, class between a species and a phyla were already in place at the time they were created. Taxonomy did not evolve as evolutionists would make us believe. Throughout geological time God only created new species. Each new species was created to fit into one of the major body plans (phyla) that was established when animal life first began. The wonder of it all is that each species is unique and different from any other of the multi thousands of species that have been identified.

What is a Phyla?

Phyla constitute the highest biological category or taxa in the animal, plant or bacteria kingdoms. Each individual phylum exhibits a unique architectural blue print or novel structural design. For instance, Man belongs to the Chordate Phylum. The Chordate Phylum is characterized by an animal that has a vertebral column with a notochord. This constitutes a unique body plan. All vertebrate animals with a notochord such as birds, fish, amphibians, reptiles and mammals belong to the Chordate Phylum. This has nothing to do with evolution, but it has everything to do with God’s creative plan for all animal life. See Figure A-5

The chordate body plan is one of 35 distinct animal body plans that scientists have identified as being present in our modern world. However, there were 45+ phyla or distinct body plans present during the Cambrian Period. The species that belonged to these extra phyla mysteriously became extinct at the end of the Cambrian Age. Geology records this event as being the first major extinction of animal life on planet Earth. See Figure A-4.

Figure A-5: This is a simplified Taxonomy Chart.

Figure A-5: This is a simplified Taxonomy Chart.

 

During this Upper Cambrian extinction event the 45+ animal phyla (body plans) were reduced to 35 animal phyla (body plans). These 35 animal phyla have continued from the base of the Ordovician Age to the present day.

In other words, these 35 animal phyla or body plans were all that God has required in order to create the multi thousands of micro and macro animal species in later geological ages. For instance, when God created Adam and Eve about 6,000+ years ago, He placed them into the chordate phyla. This phylum is characteristic of all species that have a vertebral column with a notochord. This had nothing to do with evolution, but it has everything to do with God’s plan for this Earth. It was another act of special creation by our all powerful, Creator God. It was also the final act of creation by God which resulted in the termination of the 6th Day of Creation. See Figures A-1.

From the time of the Cambrian Explosion of animal life to the present, God has only created new species of animal life. He has never to our knowledge created one additional phylum. This is why, the dramatic Cambrian Explosion of Animal life is so vitally important to observe. The “Cambrian Explosion of Animal Life” has become one of the best held secrets by the Darwinian community. If the details would be clearly presented to the public, it would be a major blow to the slow progressive evolutionary development of animal life.

In Conclusion:

Is it possible to believe that all these Proterozoic and Cambrian sediments that contain fossil life from bottom to top are the product of Noah’s Flood as Young Earth Creationists believe? The answer is a definite no. Is this all the product of evolution as Darwinists maintain? The answer is a definite no. Evolution is not smart enough to create new species because it is based upon a non intelligent evolutionary process. But, God is. He is only all powerful, highly intelligent, Creator God.

From the time of the Cambrian Explosion of Animal Life to the present, these many animal species that constitute the fossil record have lived and died. They have been preserved within the sediments of the Earth by Almighty God for you and I to observe. This once again verifies the fact that death was present and the Fall of Lucifer had taken place prior to the Proterozoic Age. Figure A-1.

The Second Creation Day

We read, “And God said, “Let there be an expanse between the waters to separate water from water.” So God made the expanse and separated the water under the expanse from the water above it. And it was so. God called the expanse “sky.” And there was evening, and there was morning—the second day.” NIV Genesis 1:6-8.

During the Second Day, God established a greenhouse effect around the Earth. In other words He blanketed the Earth with a layer of clouds as shown on Figure A-6. Geology confirms that this greenhouse effect continued throughout the Second and Third Days. The science of geology reveals that the sediments of Ordovician and Silurian ages were widely distributed throughout the continental regions of the Earth. I have had the great privilege of mapping these sediments throughout western Canada and also in the Northwest territories, northern Yukon, the Arctic Islands, Alaska and portions of the northern United States. These sediments are often in the 2,000+ to 20,000 foot (609.6+ to 6,096m) range of thickness. The coral reefs of this age are of giant proportions. On Banks Island in the NWT there are pinnacle reefs up to 4,000+ feet (1219m) in height. For further information see my book called, “Bridging the Gap: The First 6 Days.”2 This book relates the amazing compatibility that exists between the record of Geology and the record of the Bible.

Figure A-6: The sediments of the 2nd Day of Creation are shown as they relate to the Arctic Islands region and to northern Yukon and Alaska. These sediments are present in many other places throughout the Earth. Figure by Don Daae.

Figure A-6: The sediments of the 2nd Day of Creation are shown as they relate to the Arctic Islands region and to northern Yukon and Alaska. These sediments are present in many other places throughout the Earth. Figure by Don Daae.

We may ask the question, are these sediments of the 2nd Day the product of Noah’s Flood? Definitely not. Is this the product of Evolution. Definitely not. Evolution isn’t smart enough to accomplish this enormous intelligent task. But, God is. This reveals God’s mighty creative acts. This gives an insight into His creative plan for the Second Creation Day. Sediments of this age were regionally deposited in a systematic and mappable manner on every continent throughout the Earth.

The Third Creation Day

We read, ”And God said, “Let the water under the sky be gathered to one place, and let dry ground appear.” And it was so. 10 God called the dry ground “land,” and the gathered waters he called “seas.” And God saw that it was good. 11 Then God said, “Let the land produce vegetation: seed-bearing plants and trees on the land that bear fruit with seed in it, according to their various kinds.” And it was so. 12The land produced vegetation: plants bearing seed according to their kinds and trees bearing fruit with seed in it according to their kinds. And God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening, and there was morning—the third day.” What did God create that was good? He created ferns, trees, corals, and many species of invertebrate animal life.

Figure A-7: Some evidence of land plants appeared during the Upper Silurian Age. By Middle Devonian a considerable diversity of land plants and trees had spread over land areas. The Pennsylvanian anthracite coals are considered to be of highest quality. The Greenhouse effect that was established during the 2nd Day continued throughout the 3rd Day. Figure by Don Daae.

Figure A-7: Some evidence of land plants appeared during the Upper Silurian Age. By Middle Devonian a considerable diversity of land plants and trees had spread over land areas. The Pennsylvanian anthracite coals are considered to be of highest quality. The Greenhouse effect that was established during the 2nd Day continued throughout the 3rd Day. Figure by Don Daae.

These sediments are often up to 8,000 feet+ (2,438m+) in thickness. They are present in the Rocky Mountain region west of Calgary Alberta, Canada. The impressive Rundle and Banff Formations of Pennsylvanian and Mississippian ages and the Palliser and other Devonian Formations are all of this age. These formations are also present throughout Alberta, Saskatchewan and into Manitoba of Western Canada. The various ages of Devonian reefs produce great quantities of oil and gas throughout Western Canada. These rock units extend southward throughout central USA and northward into the NWT. Are these sediments the product of Noah’s Flood? Definitely not. Are they the product of Evolution? Definitely not. Evolution isn’t smart enough to create all these new species of life and to deposit these great thicknesses of sediments in such an orderly and mappable manner, but God is. Is this a product of Uniformitarianism? Definitely not. This once again gives an insight into God’s creative plan for this Creation Day. Sediments of this age are found on every continent throughout the Earth.

The Fourth Creation Day

We read, “And God said, “Let there be lights in the expanse of the sky to separate the day from the night, and let them serve as signs to mark seasons and days and years, 15 and let them be lights in the expanse of the sky to give light on the earth.” And it was so. 16 God made two great lights—the greater light to govern the day and the lesser light to govern the night. He also made the stars. 17 God set them in the expanse of the sky to give light on the earth, 18 to govern the day and the night, and to separate light from darkness. And God saw that it was good. 19 And there was evening, and there was morning—the fourth day.” Genesis 1:14-19 NIV.

Figure A-8: The sediments of the 4th Day are up to 8,000+ feet (2,438+m) in thickness along the Dave Lord Ridge in the Northern Yukon Territories of Canada. There were mass extinctions of animal life at the termination of the Permian Age. By Don Daae.

Figure A-8: The sediments of the 4th Day are up to 8,000+ feet (2,438+m) in thickness along the Dave Lord Ridge in the Northern Yukon Territories of Canada. There were mass extinctions of animal life at the termination of the Permian Age. By Don Daae.

There appears to be a contradiction, because God created (bara) the sun, moon and stars during the First Day of Creation. The Hebrew word bara means original creation. It means God created the vast universe of stars and galaxies during the First Day of Creation out of no previous existing material. However, during the 4th Day, God made (asah) the sun, moon, and stars. What does this mean?

The Hebrew word asah does not mean original creation. Asah implies that the sun, moon and stars were given a new appointment. They were to serve for seasons, days and years. The greenhouse effect that encompassed the Earth during the 2nd and 3rd Days was now broken. The sun, moon and stars were now free to shine directly upon the surface of the Earth allowing for season, days and years. It is interesting to note that trees prior to the Permian Age lacked seasonal rings, whereas trees from this age to the present have definite seasonal rings. This once again verifies the complete accuracy of the Bible record. It gives us a great insight into God’s plan for this Earth.

Regional geology reveals that North and South America were still attached to Europe, Asia and Africa during Permian time. However, long linear Permian rift valleys developed causing thick sediments to be deposited in these valleys. It was not until late Triassic and the beginning of Jurassic time that North and South America had completely separated from Europe and Africa. Details are given in my book, “Bridging the Gap: The First 6 Days.” Some of the details are illustrated in Figure A-8.

The 4th Day ended with massive extinctions of animal and plant life. It is conjectured that possibly 99% of all invertebrate animal life became extinct. 75% of amphibian groups, 80% of reptile groups became extinct. Many species of plant life came to a sudden end which included the large scale lepidodendron and sigillaria trees. Many species of plant and animal life were replaced with new species of plant and animal life that gave a new face to the animal and plant world. Evolution was not smart enough to do this, but God was. This was the work of the Almighty Architect and Creator of the Universe who brought the 4th Day to a dramatic close and ushered in a new age that the Bible refers to as the 5th Day.

Were these sediments deposited by Noah’s Flood? Definitely not. They were all deposited in a normal, mappable manner. The question is this: can the geological formations that we have just described be classified under the banner of Uniformitarianism? Definitely not. Can evolution explain the phenomenal changes, creations of new life and mass extinctions of life and the dramatic changes of climate? Definitely not.

The Fifth Creation Day

We read, “And God said, “Let the water teem with living creatures, and let birds fly above the earth across the expanse of the sky.” So God created the great creatures of the sea and every living and moving thing with which the water teems, according to their kinds, and every winged bird according to its kind. And God saw that it was good. God blessed them and said, “Be fruitful and increase in number and fill the water in the seas, and let the birds increase on the earth. And there was evening, and there was morning—the fifth day.” Genesis 1:20-23 NIV.

Figure A-9: The sediments of the 5th Day are generally several thousand feet thick. In the great basin regions they are up to 20,000 + feet (4,572m) in thickness. Figure by Don Daae.

Figure A-9: The sediments of the 5th Day are generally several thousand feet thick. In the great basin regions they are up to 20,000 + feet (4,572m) in thickness. Figure by Don Daae.

 

The 5th Day relates basically to the age of the dinosaurs and birds. Also entire new species of all invertebrate animal life were created. Today, there are 16 groups of modern birds and 14 of these groups had their beginnings during Cretaceous times. Modern turtles and tortoises first appeared during the Late Triassic. Crocodiles and alligators first appeared in Mid Jurassic time. Lizards were abundant during this time. Snakes can be traced back to the Upper Cretaceous. The modern frogs, newts and salamanders appeared during the Jurassic Age. See Figure A-9.

The sudden and first appearance of the angiosperms (flowering plants) took place during the upper part of the Albian Epoch. By the beginning of the Upper Cretaceous the forests were essentially modern. This included such trees as beeches, birches, maple, oak, walnut, palm, tulip, Sweet gum, Breadfruit, ebony and many more. These sediments are generally rich in oil and gas. Are these sediments the result of Noah’s Flood as Creation Science people maintain? Definitely not. Are they the product of blind evolution? Definitely not. Evolution isn’t smart enough, but God is.

The 5th Day ended with the sudden and radical worldwide extinctions of the dinosaurs, marine reptiles, pterosaurs and the selective extinctions of other species.

The Sixth Creation Day

And God said, “Let the land produce living creatures according to their kinds: livestock, creatures that move along the ground, and wild animals, each according to its kind.” And it was so. God made the wild animals according to their kinds, the livestock according to their kinds, and all the creatures that move along the ground according to their kinds. And God saw that it was good.” Genesis 1:24-25 NIV.

God made wild animals and domestic animals during the 6th Day that are classified as mammals. See Figure A-10. We know that domestic animals are warm blooded and according to the science of palaeontology all the new species of wild animals of the Cenozoic Era are all warm blooded mammals.

A mystery surrounds the demise of the dinosaurs. However, the birds, the earliest mammals such as the insectivores & the marsupials, the turtles, tortoises, crocodiles, alligators, snakes, lizards, frogs, toads, newts, and salamanders survived the 5th Day and continued to flourish during the 6th Day. This once again reveals the complete accuracy of the scriptures.

The sudden dramatic extinction of the dinosaurs marks the end of the 5th Day and the beginning of the 6th Day of Creation. This also marks the beginning of the Age of the Warm Blooded Mammals. See Figures A-10. About 99% plus of all warm blooded mammals were created after the dinosaurs became extinct. It may be interesting to note that the famous beautiful Rocky Mountains in Canada and the USA also began to form after the dinosaurs became extinct.

Palaeontologists have identified 15 Groups (Orders) of warm blooded animals that are classified as chordates during the 6th Day. A chordate is a vertebrate animal that has a vertebral column with a notochord. Geology has confirmed that each Mammal Group contains many unique species that were created at many different time intervals. Darwinists always try to prove that every new species must have evolved from a previous species. They still have not come forth with the proof.

Figure A-10: This diagram shows the 15 Groups of warm blooded animals that God created and established during the 6th Day of Creation. Each group had morphological similarities that were characteristic of that group. God placed Man in the Primate Group. Day 7 began at the end of the Pleistocene Ice Age. Prepared by Don Daae.

Figure A-10: This diagram shows the 15 Groups of warm blooded animals that God created and established during the 6th Day of Creation. Each group had morphological similarities that were characteristic of that group. God placed Man in the Primate Group. Day 7 began at the end of the Pleistocene Ice Age. Prepared by Don Daae.

Each new mammal species can be related directly to the chordate phyla (body plan) that God created and established at the Cambrian Explosion of animal life during the First Creation Day. See Figures A-3 & A-6. This has nothing to do with evolution, but it has everything to do with God’s creative plan.

The first one or two species of the Insectivore and Marsupial Groups have been found within the sediments of the 5th Day. See Figure A-12. However, all new species within these two Groups were created during the 6th Day.

There were thousands of new creations of animal species that relate directly to the other thirteen mammal groups.

The end of the Pleistocene Ice Age witnessed the mass extinctions of many species from each of the 15 groups of warm blooded mammals. These extinctions resulted from Noah’s Flood about 4500 years ago. See Figures A-10 & A-11. It is important to realize that representative species of each of these 15 Groups continued to survive to present times.

The accumulated thickness of the 6th Day sediments in the basin regions of the Earth range from 1000 feet (305m) to 30,000+ feet (9,144m+) in thickness. In the continental regions, the thicknesses are less. Are these sediments the product of Noah’s Flood? Definitely not. They were all deposited in an orderly mappable manner.

Man was the final act of Creation

We read, “Then God said, “Let us make man in our image, in our likeness, and let them rule over the fish of the sea and the birds of the air, over the livestock, over all the earth and over all the creatures that move along the ground.” 27So God created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him; male and female he created them. 28 God blessed them and said to them, “Be fruitful and increase in number; fill the earth and subdue it. Rule over the fish of the sea and the birds of the air and over every living creature that moves on the ground.” 29Then God said, “I give you every seed-bearing plant on the face of the whole earth and every tree that has fruit with seed in it. They will be yours for food. 30And to all the beasts of the earth and all the birds of the air and all the creatures that move on the ground—everything that has the breath of life in it—I give every green plant for food.” And it was so. 31God saw all that he had made, and it was very good. And there was evening, and there was morning—the sixth day.” Genesis 1:24-31 NIV. See Figure A-11.

Figure 1: A Biblical and Geologically based chronology of the history of man.

Figure 1: A Biblical and Geologically based chronology of the history of man.

 

It is interesting to note that modern Man first appeared on Earth towards the end of the Pleistocene Ice Age. Adam and Eve were God’s crowning act of creation. The moment Eve was created, the 6th Day came to a sudden end and the 7th day began.

As I have pointed out before, whatever God creates is always good. God completed everything that He had planned, formed, created and made from the First Day to the end of the Sixth Day. This also included his final act of creating Man & Woman. God could now truly say, “It was very Good.” This phrase has nothing to do about whether evil was present or not present as Creation Science people maintain. The fact that death was present during each Creation Day confirms that the Fall of Lucifer and his angels had already taken place prior to the Proterozoic Age. From that point in time death has been reigning on Earth to the present day.

The Seventh Day

The Seventh Day is not a Creation Day. It began the moment Eve was created. It brought about the sudden termination of the 6th Day and has been continuing until the present tome. See Figure A-11. No new plant or animal species have been created since the end of the 6th Day. God rested on the 7th Day from all His work of creating something new. This rest has been continuing for the past 6,010+ years. The big question arises, when will the 7th Day end a new Day begin? Answering this question is beyond the realm of this particular article. However, on the basis of the Bible, we know that the 7th Day will also someday end.

Concluding Remarks

Creation Science or Young Earth Creationists maintain that the Earth is only about 6,000+ years old. They contend that all of the sediments that are described above are only about 4,500 years old and were all deposited by Noah’s Flood.

I have been accused time and time again of bringing forth theistic evolution and promoting scriptural error. I have been accused of being a Theistic Uniformitarian. The attacks have often been vicious because this is what these critics have been taught at Bible Colleges, Christian schools and churches by Creation Science people. The tide is now beginning to change. The reason why I have written this paper is to make clear to the reader that it is possible to show the complete compatibility that exists between the record of the Bible with the record of geology, archaeology, anthropology, palaeontology and palynology. Other scientists have shown that a remarkable compatibility also exists between the record of biology, micro-biology, astronomy and all the other natural sciences with the record of the Bible. Let us now march forward with the scientific evidences that reveal the bigness and the greatness of Almighty God.

We are all aware that we are under attack by the Fallen Lucifer, the Prince of the air and of darkness, who has been and still is blinding the eyes of men, women and children to believe THE BIG LIE that God does not exist.

The GIRA Interpretation References

1. Dr. Roger C. Wiens, “Radometric Dating A Christian Perspective.” See rweins@prodigy.net

2. Bargoorn Elso S., “The Oldest Fossils.” Scientific American, August 1963.

3. Gould, Stephen Jay, “Wonderful Life: The Burgess Shale and the Nature of history,” W.W. Norton & Company, N.Y., London, 1990, .59. p.p.69 -76.

 

 

last updated: March 7, 2013
Copyright © 2010 Genesis International Research Association

The Garden of Eden

Adam and Eve were the first human beings on planet earth. They were the first inhabitants of the Garden of Eden. There is a mystery that surrounds the Garden of Eden. Where was it located? When was it formed and created? What was it like?

The Two Garden’s of Eden

The Bible describes two separate and different Garden’s of Eden. The First Primordial Garden of Eden was created and formed by God during the First Day of Creation. Its inhabitants were Lucifer and his angels that God placed under his jurisdiction. This garden was decked with precious gemstones as is described in Ezekiel 28:12-14. This garden was a place of worship, singing and music to almighty God. It was Paradise on earth until one tragic day, sin was found in the heart of Lucifer. He rose up in open rebellion and violence against Almighty God. He began to defile his sanctuaries and led many of his angels into a life of sin and open rebellion against the God who created them. From that moment onward Lucifer became known as Satan or the devil. His angels became known as demons or evil spirits. As a result God’s judgement was pronounced upon them and upon the Earth. From that time forward, the earth became a black sin cursed planet.

It was at this early primordial time that God looked forward through the corridors of time. He saw Man. He purposed in His heart that He would one day create (bara) and form (yatsar) man & woman and would give them the freedom to either receive Him or to reject Him. Secondly, He saw the cross. He knew that the only way he could rid the earth of evil was for His Son to die on a cruel cross to give His body as a sacrifice and to shed His blood for the sins of all mankind. He also saw the entire geological column stretching before Him and the future Garden of Eden that He would one day prepare for Adam and Eve. The fossil record verifies the presence of sin. All plant and animal life from the base of the Proterozoic to the present is a record of life and death. Death is a direct result of sin resulting from the Fall of Lucifer and His angels during the First Day of Creation (The details of the Primordial Garden of Eden will soon be on our website).

The Second Garden of Eden

God prepared a beautiful garden for Adam and Eve, which was located within a place called Eden. We read, “Now the Lord God had planted a garden in the east of Eden; and there He put the man he had formed” (Genesis 2:8).

The exact location of Eden and the Garden of Eden is not known for certainty. There have been speculations as to where it could have been located. The major view today is that it was located somewhere in the vicinity of the Fertile Crescent region of Mesopotamia. Other people speculate it could be in the Black Sea region. The view that is presented here is that it was located in the Caspian Sea region to the north of Mesopotamia.

It is obvious from the Biblical description that Eden was a relatively high plateau region bordered by lofty mountains. There was a large headwater lake within the garden, which was fed by rivers that had its source higher up in the nearby mountains. There were four major river systems that flowed out of this lake and away from the garden, for we read, “Now a river went out of Eden to water the garden, and from there it parted and became four river heads” (Genesis 2:10). This would indicate that a major lake within the Garden of Eden acted as a highly charged dynamic watershed providing abundant water to feed four major river systems that flowed away from the garden to four distinct parts of the earth.

The First River System is believed to have flowed in a northwesterly direction into Asia and Europe. It possibly emptied into the North Sea, for we read: “The name of the first is Pishon; it is the one which encompasses the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold. And the gold of that land is good. Bedellium and the onyx stone are there.” (Genesis 2:11-12) This river provided an access for Early Man to migrate northwestward into Europe and Western Asia.

The Second River System flowed south and southwestward through the land of Caanan along the Jordan River through the Gulf of Aquaba into Ethiopia, and eventually emptied into the Indian Ocean in the vicinity of Mozambique or Tanzania. We read as follows, “The name of the second river is Gihon; it is the one which encompasses the whole land of Cush” (Genesis 2:13). Cush is the ancient name for Ethiopia. The question arises how a river could possibly flow into this region, because it would be physically impossible for this to happen today.

It becomes obvious that physical changes have taken place in the region. The Legg 23b2 of the Deep Sea Drilling Project aboard the R.V. Glomar Challenger was devoted to scientific drilling in the central and southern Red Sea. Drilling revealed that the Red Sea Rift Valley is underlain by Late Miocene evaporites, including rock salt, at relatively shallow depths throughout most of its extent. These evaporates are absent only in the central rift valley zone that is underlain by recent igneous basaltic rock. It was reported in Science [179 (1973), p. 379] “that there were rocks as old or older than the late Miocene (about 5 million years) within one or two miles of a supposedly active spreading centre. One interpretation of the magnetic anomaly pattern from this area indicates that rocks no older than about 2 million years should be present based on the assumption that a continuous Tertiary spreading history exists for the Red Sea. A more reasonable interpretation is that spreading resumed only recently in the Red Sea following a period of quiescence that may have extended back into the early Miocene.” In other words, Pleistocene and Late Miocene sediments are absent in the central region of the Red Sea Rift Valley. This indicates non deposition or erosion. The spreading or rifting of the Red Sea appears to be Recent (i.e. took place at the end of the Pleistocene, which coincides with Noah’s Flood). The central portion of the north south trending rift zone contains heavy metal rich black shale deposits and basalt igneous rocks, similar to deep oceanic tholeütic basalts. The temperatures along the rift zone are unusually high, and the zone is characterized by hot brine occurrences. This would indicate the escape of continuing hot juvenile waters along the central portion of the rift valley.

Prior to the end of the Pleistocene, Africa was joined to Saudi Arabia and the active spreading center of the Red Sea was not present. Geophysical studies have revealed a very recent opening of the Red Sea region.

It is also important to realize that the history of the Red Sea Rift Valley extends back in time for many millions of years. However, the central portion of the Red Sea is very young. This is also confirmed by the warmer waters above the igneous tholeutic basalts.

This second river system from the Garden of Eden is envisaged to have flowed southward along the topographically low rift valley region that extends through the land of Caanan. It would have followed the Jordan River through the Gulf of Aquaba into the Red Sea region. It would have continued to follow the East African Rift Valley through the land of Ethiopia and southward through Kenya, Tanzania and eventually emptying into the Indian Ocean. This would have provided an excellent access for the early descendants of Adam and Eve to migrate into Africa. They would have been the early people who manufactured the stone tools that archaeologists have classified as the Oldowan and Acheulian cultures.

The Third River System flowed eastward from the Garden of Eden. It possibly passed through the interior part of Asia, perhaps through the Gobi Desert region, emptying eventually into the Pacific Ocean, for we read: “The name of the third river is Hiddekal; it is the one which goes toward the east of Assyria” (Genesis 2:14). This provided an access for early Pre-Flood Man to migrate eastward into China, Australia, and North and South America.

The Fourth River system flowed south easterly through the fertile crescent region of Mesopotamia, emptying into the Persian Gulf. It was known as the Euphrates River, for we read: “The fourth river is the Euphrates” (Genesis 2:14); given this refers to the river known as the Euphrates today. It would seem that Adam and Eve themselves may have journeyed southeastward from the Garden of Eden, and settled in the rich area of the fertile crescent region. The ancient home of Noah is believed to be just north of the present Persian Gulf.

It will remain for geologists and geomorphologists to identify and map the above mentioned river systems. These channels would probably now be infilled with gravels and sands. Local and regional post Pleistocene movements would make their identification more difficult to observe.

When Did God prepare the Garden of Eden?

It is here believed that the second Garden of Eden was prepared sometime between 6,000 to 10,000 years ago. Pleistocene geologists Ernst Antevs 3,4,5 and American and Gerard DeGreer6 a European describe a marked temperature rise that took place at about 10,000+ years ago. This marked the end of the Wisconsin (Wurm) Glaciation and the beginning of the Neothermal Age. The term Neothermal means the New Warm Age. It more accurately replaces the more indefinite Post Glacial / Recent terminology. Neothermal stresses the fact that this age has been relatively warm and is comparable to the interglacial periods which may be appropriately named thermal or warm. They divided the Neothermal Age into three smaller ages called the Anathermal, the age of rising temperature; the Altithermal, the age of higher temperature; and the Medithermal the age of moderate temperature (see Figure 1).

Figure 1: A Biblical and Geologically based chronology of the history of man.

Figure 1: A Biblical and Geologically based chronology of the history of man.

Antevs and DeGreer were able to date glacial lake sediments back for 20,000 and 40,000+ years into the past on the basis of counting the varved, annually bedded glacial lake clays and silts. Varved clays are formed in fresh water lakes from mud brought by glacial melt water streams. Normally, one light colored relatively course or silty laminae are deposited in the summer and one dark greasy laminae in winter. The couplet is called a varve and is frequently about an inch thick. Sequences of varves are measured in clay exposures and the measurements are graphed correlated and combined in continuous series after a method devised and described by Gerard deGreer and Ernst Antevs (deGreer, p.16; Antevs 1922, p.3 and Antevs 1925,p.9). In this manner chronological records have been obtained from glacial lake sediments in Sweden, Finland, and North America.

The geological Anathermal Age began about 10,000 years ago. It marks the end of the cold Wisconsin (Wurm) Glaciation and the commencement of a pronounced warming of the climate. This progressive global warming was associated with great moisture and luxuriant growth of trees and other vegetation. All the inland lakes in northern Europe and in the USA and parts of Canada were filled with water resulting from glacial melt water and a moist form of precipitation. The areas that were previously desert became areas of lush vegetation that were able to provide abundant food for animal life. For example the Sahara Desert was grown over with lush vegetation that accommodated abundant animal life (see www.gira. Newsletter Vol. 13, no.2). This was indeed an ideal, logical and optimum time for the Lord God to plant and prepare the beautiful Garden of Eden for we read, “Now the Lord God planted a garden in the east of Eden and there He put the man that He had formed.” (Genesis 2:8)

The Creation of Plants & Animals in Eden

The Bible says that the Lord God planted a garden eastward in Eden and there he put the Man that he had formed. This may imply that the dynamic headwater lake was located in the western part of Eden, whereas the beautiful garden of plants were more eastward. We read, “Now the Lord God planted a garden in the east of Eden” (Genesis 2:8).

It would appear that God created entirely new species of plants in this garden, that were unique and different from any other part of the Earth. It is believed that when God created each new species of plant life, that he would have first formed the seed of each species out of clay (dust), and through the power of His Word, He would have created the life within that seed. This seed was then planted by the Creator in good soil where it would have grown, producing the characteristics written within the genetic code (DNA) of each new species. It is possible that the many species of domestic cereal crops, fruit trees and vegetables so vital to man for food were created within this garden. Dr. Stern (Stern, 1969) has this to say, “It was the Middle East that gave Man some of his most important crops such as wheat, barley, lentils, and peas. There too, sheep, goats, and cattle were first domesticated. The use of metal also first began there.”

Outside of the garden were many species of plant life that had been growing wild for thousands of years. There were also wild animals that had been on earth for multi thousands of years. Truly, the environment was more hostile outside of this garden. This becomes evident after Adam and Eve sinned. God had to literally force them to leave the Garden of Eden.

Climate and weather wise, the Garden of Eden was ideal. It was like paradise itself. It contained all the essential ingredients to satisfy all aspects of Man: his spirit, his soul and his body, for we read, “And out of the ground the Lord God made every tree grow that is pleasant to the sight and good for food. The tree of Life was also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.” (Genesis 2:9)

First, the Lord God made “every tree grow that was pleasant to the eyes” (Genesis 4:). This satisfied his soul. It is said that the eyes are the windows of the soul. It is through the eye gate that Man perceives the pleasant beauty of the outside world. This gives pleasure and satisfaction to his soul.

Second, “the Lord God made every tree grow that was good for food” (Genesis 4:). This satisfied his body. The many varieties of fruit on the trees and vegetables in the garden were for the nourishment and health of his physical body.

Third, the Lord God made the tree of Life which was in the midst of the garden as well as the tree of knowledge of good and evil. The tree of Life was to satisfy his spirit. God gave Adam definite instructions with respect to these two trees, for we read: “And the Lord God commanded the Man, saying, “Of every tree of the garden you may freely eat; but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat, for in the day that you eat of it you shall surely die.” (Genesis 2:16[-]17) God created within Man the freedom to make his own choices. As Creator, God expected Man to acknowledge Him and to be obedient to His Word. So he gave Man a choice between obeying or disobeying Him. It is the same choice that man and woman must make today.

As long as Adam and Eve obeyed God and ate of the tree of Life, their spirit was satisfied and they would have lived forever (see Genesis 3:23). However, God warned that if they should ever disobey Him and eat of the forbidden fruit that they would surely die. God was speaking a language that Adam could understand because death was already present within the animal and plant kingdoms resulting from Lucifer’s sin. This was a test of Adam’s obedience.

Just prior to the creation of Adam and Eve, the Lord God created new species of animal life, for we read: “Now the Lord God had formed out of the ground all the beasts of the field and all the birds of the air. He brought them to the man (Adam) to see what he would name them; and whatever the man called each living creature, that was its name. So the man gave names to all the livestock, the birds of the air and all the beasts of the field” (Genesis 2:19-20 NIV).

This was the final series of animal creations before the end of the Sixth Day. It is important to realize that outside of the Garden of Eden, the Earth was already inhabited by many thousands of species of animal life that had been there for hundreds and thousands of years. However, within the garden, entirely new species of domestic animal life were created. It is likely that cattle, sheep, goats, dogs, cats, chickens, turkeys and other animals and birds used by man for domestic purposes were created at this time. God gave Adam the responsibility of naming each of these animal and bird species in the garden.

Cattle belong to the split hoofed animals. Geology confirms that the wild varieties of split hoofed animals such as deer, moose, buffalo, elk can be traced back in the fossil record for many thousands and millions of years. Cattle are not found in the fossil record. They are a more recent creation. Wild sheep and goats can be traced back for millions of years, however, domestic sheep and goats are not found in the fossil record. Domestic dogs, cats, chickens etc are recent creations. They cannot survive without the help and assistance of Man.

This Garden of Eden was Paradise on Earth because the Tree of Life was present in the midst of this garden. After the Fall of Adam and Eve the Tree of life was removed. Today, the Tree of Life is in Paradise. When Jesus was on the Cross, there were two criminals on either side of Him. One criminal rejected Him. The other accepted Him. He said to the thief who accepted Him, “Assuredly, I say to you, today you will be with me in Paradise” (Luke 23: 43).

Possible Location of the Garden of Eden

Much mystery and speculation surrounds the possible location of the geographical region called Eden. It was in Eden where the Garden of Eden was located. Most Bible scholars seem to place its location in the vicinity of the fertile crescent of Mesopotamia, or westward in the general vicinity of Asia Minor or even as far west as the Black Sea region..

This manuscript places the possible location of Eden directly to the east of the Caucasus Mountains and to the north of the Elbruz Mountains in the vicinity of the Caspian Sea (Figure 2)(Charlesworth,). Under this scenario, the Caspian Sea would have been the dynamic large headwater lake that would have been the source for the four major river systems that flowed out from Eden. The beautiful Garden would have been to the east of this lake, for we read, “Now the Lord God had planted a garden IN THE EAST, in Eden; and there He put the man that He had formed” (Genesis 2:8).

Figure 2: Map Showing the Caspian Sea region with the Greater Caucasus and the Talish Mountains to the west; the Elburz and the Shah Jaman Mountains to the south and east. Courtesy of hhtp://msdlem.sprat.se/davidgorgan/caspiansea.html.

Figure 2: Map Showing the Caspian Sea region with the Greater Caucasus and the Talish Mountains to the west; the Elburz and the Shah Jaman Mountains to the south and east. Courtesy of hhtp://msdlem.sprat.se/davidgorgan/caspiansea.html.

Critics would be quick to point out that this would be an impossible region for the Garden of Eden, because the present day Caspian Sea is a low lying, land locked, salty sea where nothing grows or lives and the adjacent area to the east is dry, desert like and relatively barren. The Caspian Sea is 28 meters (92 feet) below sea level. Rivers from all directions flow into it and it does not have an outlet. The Caspian Sea is presently the largest inland body of water in the world. It extends about 1207 km (750 miles) in a north-south direction and varies in width from 209km to 435km (130 to 270 miles). It has a mean depth of approximately 168 meters (550 feet) with extremes ranging from 8 meters (26 feet) in the north to about 975 meters (3200 feet) in the south.

In order to reconcile the apparent paradox of what the Garden of Eden was and what it is today, it is necessary to find the answer in geology.

References

Science, 1973, p.379. R.V. Challenger, Legg 23b of the Deep Sea Drilling Project aboard the RV Glomar Challenger.

Antevs, Ernest. Retreat of the Last Ice Sheet in Eastern Canada. Geol. Survey Canada, Mem. 146, 1925.

Antevs, Ernst. The Recession of the Last Ice Sheet in New England. Amer. Geog. Soc., Research Ser. 11, 1922.

Antevs, Ernest. Geochronology of the Deglacial and Neothermal Ages. The Journal of Geology, Vol.61, Number 3, May 1953.

DeGreer, Gerard, Geochronologia Suecica Principles, Svenska, Vetenskapsakad, Handl., Vol. 18, No. 6, 1940.

Stern Philip VanDoren, Prehistoric Europe from Stone Age Man to the Early Greeks NY Norton, 1969, p.211

Professor Charlesworth, The Quaternary Era p: 604-605

 

 

last updated: March 7, 2013
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