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Origin of Earth

The origin of the Earth has been debated for centuries. What is the true origin of the Earth? What is the most logical and rational theory for the origin of the Earth?

The very first verse in the Bible says, “In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth” (Genesis 1:1). According to this passage God is the originator and Creator of the Earth. This is in contrast to secular Darwinists who claim the Earth originated by a naturalistic evolutionary chance process. There are Deists who believe God Created and originated the Universe at the time of the Big Bang, then God removed Himself and has allowed the universe to form by an evolutionary, naturalistic chance process.

The science of Astronomy maintains the Earth had a beginning. This is complementary with the Bible record which also maintains the Earth had a beginning. In order to gain an insight into the origin of the Earth, it is necessary to investigate the discoveries of astronomy. Geology can give an insight into the age of the Earth, whereas astronomy is able to give an insight into how the universe came into being at the time of the Big Bang Creation Event and also some of its intricate history. Astronomy has revealed evidences as to how galaxies, stars and planets were originally created and formed. All of this gives information and insight as to how our solar system and planetary system came into being and thus sets the basis for postulating the origin of the Earth.

The science of geology presents an interesting observation. Geology maintains the Earth had a beginning. This is complementary with the Bible record which also maintains the Earth had a beginning. In the following chapters, we will begin to see that there is a remarkable compatibility between the Geological and the Biblical records when it comes to explaining the history of the Earth from the time of its beginning to the present.

The Bible maintains the Earth was created and formed according to a plan. The sciences of astronomy and geology, both, give an insight into this plan.

Discoveries of Astronomy

Hugh Ross Ph.D. who is a Christian astronomer, astrophysicist and President of Reasons To Believe says, “No other generation has witnessed so many discoveries about the universe. No other generation has seen the measuring of the cosmos. For previous generations the universe remained a profound mystery. But we are alive to see several of its mysteries solved. Not only can we measure certain aspects of the universe, but in these measurements we are discovering some of the characteristics of the One who fashioned it all. Astronomy has provided us with new tools to probe the Creator’s personality.” 1 The reader is advised to read Dr. Hugh Ross’s book “The Creator and the Cosmos” for more detailed explanations.

Dr. Ross describes our vast universe as being, a Just Right Universe. It was designed just right for life on this Earth because our Earth has just the right molecules, the right atoms, the right nucleons, and the right electrons. If these four major building blocks were not in place, then galaxies, stars and planets would never have been formed and then created. At whatever level these building blocks of life are examined, it reveals the physics of the universe to be very meticulously fine tuned. To make sure the needed atoms were present, the Earth must have been exquisitely constructed, and carefully fabricated by a Super Intellect. This could never have been accomplished without the workings of a transcendent, Master Intelligent Designer, Chemist and Creator.

Dr. Ross says, “Unless it (the universe) is skillfully fashioned, the atoms will not be able to assemble into complex molecules. Such precise balancing of all factors is truly beyond our ability to comprehend. Yet with the measuring of the universe, even more astounding facts become apparent.” 2

The universe’s expansion rate was the first parameter to be measured which amazed astrophysicists. Dr. Ross says, “If the universe expanded too rapidly, matter would disperse so efficiently that none of it would clump enough to form galaxies. If no galaxies form, no stars will form. If no stars form, no planets form. If no planets form, there’s no place for life. On the other hand, if the universe expanded too slowly, matter would clump so effectively that all of it, the whole universe in fact, would collapse into a super-dense lump before any solar-type stars could form.”3 In other words, if the universe were left to chance, it would stand no chance of survival.

The Age of the Universe was the second parameter to be measured. Astrophysicists favor a date of about 12 billion years. The reader may question, why couldn’t God have created the universe about 6,000 years ago? Dr. Ross says, “Given the laws and constants of physics God chose to create, it takes about twelve billion years just to fuse enough heavy minerals in the nuclear furnaces of several generations of giant stars to make life chemistry possible. Life could not happen any earlier in the universe than it did on earth. Nor could it happen much later. As the universe ages, stars like the sun–located in the right part of the galaxy for life and in a stable nuclear burning phase—become increasingly rare. If the universe were just a few billion years older, such stars would no longer exist.”4

A third parameter is entropy, or energy degradation. The universe possesses an extreme amount of entropy. Ross says, “This high level of entropy is essential for life. Without it, systems as small as stars and planets would never form. But as extremely high as the entropy of the universe is, it could not be much higher. If it were higher, sytems as large as galaxies would never form. Stars and planets cannot form without galaxies.”5

A fourth Parameter is the ratio of the electromagnetic force constant to the gravitational force constant. If this constant was decreased by very minute amounts, then only large stars would form. Ross says, “For life to be possible in the universe, both large and small stars must exist. The large stars must exist because only in their thermonuclear furnaces are most of the life-essential elements produced. The small stars like the sun must exist because only small stars burn long enough and stable enough to sustain a planet with life.”6 Our Earth is dependent upon our Sun for life. It happens to be just the right size and the right distance from the Sun for life to exist.

The Solar System

As Astronomers research our universe, they find that it is mind boggling to grasp the minute detail that the Master Designer wove together within the universe, our galaxy and our solar system in order to make the Earth suitable for life. In order to understand how God may have created and formed our Earth, it is imperative that we understand certain details about our solar system.

For the solar system to be suitable for life, it must belong to the right spiral galaxy. Ross points out, “Not all galaxies are created equal in terms of their capacity to support life. Popular media often give the impression that all galaxies are spiral like our Milky Way. Actually only 5% of the galaxies are spiral. The other 95% are either elliptical or irregular.”7 First, it is important that our Milky Way Galaxy is a just right spiral galaxy in order for it to be suitable for life on the Earth.

Secondly, it is important that our solar system is positioned in the right part of the spiral arm, and that the spiral arm must be at the right distance from the centre of our galaxy. Ross emphasizes the importance of supernovae explosions leading to the formation of the solar system and in supplying the needed quantity of elements heavier than helium. He also points out the importance of White Dwarf stars in supplying the element fluorine which the Earth needs for the support of life.

Thirdly, our solar system must be a single star (Sun) system. It cannot have two or more suns. Ross says, “This star must form at the right time in the history of the galaxy. If it forms too soon or too late, the mix of heavy minerals suitable for life chemistry will not exist. It is also essential that the star be middle-aged. Only middle-aged stars are in a sufficiently stable burning phase.” 7

Fourthly, Our Earth must have the right rotation period. If it rotates too slow, temperature differences become too great. If it rotates too fast, wind velocities will rise to catastrophic levels.

Fifthly, the Earth needs the right Moon. Dr. Ross says p.128, “Our moon is unique among solar system bodies in that it is so large relative to its planet. As a result, our moon exerts a significant gravitational pull on Earth . Thanks to this pull, coastal sea waters are cleansed and their nutrients replenished, also the obliquity (tilt of the rotation axis relative to the orbital plane) of earth is stabilized (a critical factor for avoiding extremes).”8

Our Earth has been prepared through a variety of finely tuned characteristics to make it suitable for life. Dr. Ross lists 32 characteristics that are necessary if life is to exist on Earth and says that this list is growing with every year of research. He then says, “These factors would seem to indicate that the galaxy, the sun, the earth, and the moon, in addition to the universe, have undergone divine design.”10

Secular Scenario

for the Origin of the Earth

The origin of the Earth must be considered in the context of the entire solar system, because the Earth is an integral part of this system. Secular textbooks on Astronomy and Geology present two main hypothesis with respect to the origin of the Earth. They are:

1. The Cold Nebular Accretion Hypothesis .

2. The Hot Nebular Accretion Hypothesis

1. The Cold Nebular Accretion Hypothesis envisages a swirling cold cloud of gas and dust gathering in a certain arm of our Milky Way Galaxy. As it rotates it becomes flattened and disc shaped. Gravitational forces cause 90% plus of its mass to be compressed to its centre. As the particles of matter and gases are condensed and shrunk, gravitational attraction causes them to be attracted to the central mass at the centre. The increased intensity of particles being attracted to the central mass by gravitational compression generates great heat to form the sun.

Solar winds drive the lighter dust and gas elements outward causing protoplanets to form by accretion. As these protoplanets enlarge, their gravitational pull becomes more intense. This causes the surrounding particles to bombard the growing planet such as the Earth with increased intensity causing it to grow continually in size.

The Cold Nebular Accretion Model attempts to explain how the Earth was originally formed. At this stage the Earth is still unsorted but is layered. It now requires a process of differentiation. This is accomplished by the generation of heat resulting from 1. radioactive decay. 2. heat generated from gravitational compression and 3. accretionary heat from the bombardment of particles. As the Earth reverts to a liquid state the heavier iron and nickel minerals sink to form the Earth’s core which has a density of 10. The less dense minerals form the liquid middle Mantle with an average density of 4. The lighter minerals form the crystalline crust which has a density of 2.65.

2. The Hot Accretion Hypothesis envisages an extremely hot solar nebula (10000 C or greater) in a certain spiral arm of our Milky Way Galaxy. The general mechanics of accretion would be quite similar to the above model except the swirling cloud of dust particles and gas are extremely hot, not cold. Under this model, the sun forms first and the planets follow. The initial crystallization of iron and nickel rich elements form the earth’s core. The less dense elements form the liquid mantle. Then, with the subsequent cooling of the Earth, the less dense silicate minerals begin to crystallize to form the outer crust.

In 1796 Pierre-Simon Laplace published his Nebular Hypothesis. Astro Physicist and Geologist Dr. Harry McSween Jr., says, “In Laplace’s nebular hypothesis, eventually rotation caused the nebular gas to flatten into a disk with a bulge at the centre. The formation of a nebular disk was a particularly important aspect of Laplace’s model, because it provided an explanation why all the planets lie in the ecliptic plane.”11 He then says, “A thorny problem for Laplace’s nebular hypothesis, then and now, is that the present Sun should be rapidly whirling like a figure skater. Instead, this star, with 99.9% of the solar system’s mass, is spinning much too slowly, having only 2% of the system’s angular momentum.”12 Physicists in the early part of the century tried to get around this problem by coming out with catastrophic theories. The most popular model was the hypothesis of two stars colliding. This was shown to be statistically impossible, thus this theory was abandoned. Astronomers have now returned to the nebular hypothesis again. It has become the almost universally accepted model, even though it falls short of answering the above problem.

McSween says, “Unlike the formative stages of stars, the act of planet formation has never been observed.” 13 There is a gap in knowledge as to how a gaseous nebula could come together to form our Earth in an extremely hot state with all the necessary ingredients for life and why our central Sun with 99.9% of the solar system’s mass is spinning much too slowly having only 2% of the system’s angular momentum. The gap that is missing can be logically explained by the following Creation Scenario for the origin of the Earth.

Creation Scenario

for the Origin of the Earth

What is missing in the naturalistic, secular Scenario for the origin of the Earth is the continual working of the Great Transcendent, Intelligent Designer and Creator of the universe. They fail to recognize and to admit that this Transcendent Super Intellect is a super scientist, astronomer, geologist, chemist, biologist, and the list could go on and on. Whatever field of science a person may find themselves in, they can be assured that He knows everything to be known about the subject that they are researching. It is totally absurd to ignore the One who has brought all things into being.

Hugh Ross says, “The persistence of rejection of God’s existence and creative work despite the build-up of evidence for both suggests that the source of rejection is not intellectual. This was brought home to me while reading an article in one of the humanist magazines to which I subscribe. The article noted that “atheists, agnostics, humanists, freethinkers — call them what you will — are almost all former Christians.” It seems the issue for these atheists, agnostics, humanists, and freethinkers is not so much the deficiency of evidence for the Christian faith but rather the deficiencies of Christians. They seem to be reacting to their past, holding bitterness over the wrongs or abuses they incurred in their experience with Christians.” 14 In other words, they have gone in the opposite direction by trying to prove that there is no God, regardless how absurd their theories may be. In the process they have become disciples of the religion of naturalistic Humanism. They thus take a very anti-Christian and a very anti-Biblical position. They do not want to admit that the Biblical record, not only complements, but it also enhances the scientific record.

How is it possible to relate the Bible record to the record of astronomy? According to the Bible, God created the heavens (the universe) and the Earth (Genesis 1:1). This verse assumes God is transcendent and was present prior to the creation of the universe and the Earth. Second, it implies that He not only created the universe, but He also created the Earth by His Mighty Power.

According to astronomy 99.97% of all matter and energy came into existence suddenly within a split second at the time of the Big Bang Creation Event. Since that time all galaxies, stars, planets including the Earth etc. have been in the process of being formed, not created, by a naturalistic evolutionary process. How is it possible to bring the two records together.

God’s Plan for the Earth

According to the Bible, God established a detailed plan or architectural blueprint for the universe and the Earth before they were ever created. We read in Proverb 8:22-23 & 27 “The Lord possessed me (wisdom) at the beginning of His way, BEFORE HIS WORKS OF OLD. I have been established from everlasting, from the beginning, before there was an earth. — When he prepared the heavens (Universe) I was there.” The central theme of Proverbs chapter eight is wisdom. Wisdom is synonymous with God. Wisdom is an integral attribute of God and the universe was planned, created, formed and made according to the wisdom of God as revealed through His creation.

There are four Hebrew words kun, bara, yatsar and asah that are of fundamental importance when attempting to understand the methods by which God planned, created and formed the universe and the Earth.

-Kun means to prepare something beforehand with a plan in mind.

-Bara, has a primary meaning to create something new out of nothing. It has a secondary meaning to create something new out of previously created matter. It means to change the form, state, and situation of matter, which is totally indisposed for such a change and requires as great a power as to create something new out of nothing. For example, God created Man’s body out of previous existing dust, and He created Man’s soul and spirit out of nothing. Bara always implies original creation. In other words, what He has created has never been in existence before. For example, when God created the Earth it was unique and different from any other planet. It had never been in existence before.

-Yatsar means to form something out of previous existing matter. This involves a process and it implies the work of a potter molding a beautiful vase out of clay.

-Asah has a general meaning often translated as made. It has great latitude, but never to indicate original creation. It also means to appoint. For example, we read in Genesis 1:16, “He made (asah) the sun, moon and stars.” This can be interpreted to mean that God gave the sun, moon and stars a new appointment or assignment during the Fourth Day, although their original creation (bara) took place during the First Day (see Daae, 1989). 15

According to the Bible, God planned, created, formed and made the Earth according to a plan and purpose. Often these four Hebrew words appear similar to each other, yet are quite different such as is found in Isaiah 45:18, “Thus says the Lord, who created (bara) the heavens, who is God, who formed (yatsar) the earth and made (asah) it, who established (kun) it, who did not create (bara) it in vain (that is without a purpose), who formed (yatsar) it to be inhabited: I am the Lord, and there is no other.” The Hebrew word kun means to come forth with a plan. The plan and purpose was that the Earth would be a place of habitation and that the Earth’s inhabitants would give honor, glory and power to their Intelligent Designer and Creator as a result of observing the greatness of His creation. Revelations 4:11 says, “You are worthy O Lord to receive glory and honor and power, for you created all things and by your will they exist and were created.” We read in Isaiah 43:7. “Everyone who is called by my name, whom I have created (bara) for My glory, I have formed (yatsar) him, yes, I have made (asah) him.” The purpose of Man is to acknowledge God as Creator and to give Him all the glory and honor.

The often confusing and contradictory question arises: How could God create the Earth if the original matter had already been created at the time of the Big Bang Creation Event? The answer is found in the second meaning of the Hebrew word bara. According to Crudence Concordance bara has two meanings. The first meaning is to create something new out of nothing. The second meaning is to create something new out of previous existing matter and the end result is just as great as if it had been created out of nothing.

The Origin of the Earth

Based upon the Bible Record

“In the beginning God created (bara) the Heaven’s and the Earth” (Genesis 1:1). This verse describes the origin of the Earth. Bara always means original Creation. It implies that God either created the Earth out of nothing or He created the Earth out of previously created matter and the end result would have been just as great as if He had created it out of nothing.

The basic principle of Creation is that God always creates something according to a preconceived plan (kun). He then forms (yatsar) what he has created by a step by step process. For example when he created (bara) the Earth, it was a brand new creation. He then began to form (yatsar) the Earth, as a potter would mold a beautiful vase out of clay, in preparation for life. This process of forming the Earth involved the laying of the cornerstone and the foundations of the Earth, the birth of the oceans, the establishment of a water cycle, etc. This was followed by millions of successive acts of creation involving the creation of multi species of plant and animal life throughout geological time. At the time that God was creating life, He was also forming (yatsar) the Earth by the deposition of thousands of feet of sedimentary deposits. At any point in time during the history of the Earth the Lord God could say, “This is the Earth that I have made (asah).”

By applying this basic principle of Creation to the Universe, it follows a similar pattern. First, God planned (kun) the universe that He was about to create. Secondly, He created (bara) the universe consisting of the 99.97% of all matter and energy at the time of the Big Bang Creation Event. This matter was created suddenly and instantly (in a split second) in an extremely hot gaseous state according to astronomers. Thirdly, God immediately began to form the vast amounts of matter & gases into an orderly arrangement of nebular clouds. Every particle of matter was sent out on an orderly, pre-planned trajectory orbit in all directions through space. God continued to form (yatsar) the raw materials of matter and gases into multi million clusters of nebular clouds that were widely distributed throughout space. Fourthly, God took the raw materials that were present in the multi-million clusters of nebular clouds of matter and gases and by the power of His Word created (bara) the multi-millions of galaxies throughout space. Each galaxy became brand new with a unique arrangements of new stars, planets and moons, etc. Some of these galaxies were spiral shaped, others elliptical and others irregular in shape. Each one would have been created (bara) by separate and successive acts of creation according to the preconceived plan set out by the Master Designer. The science of astronomy confirms that every galaxy is unique and that galaxies and stars have somewhat different ages.

Astronomers estimate that our spiral shaped Milky Way Galaxy consists of about one hundred billion stars. Many of these stars are believed to have solar systems. Each of these stars and solar systems within the Milky Way Galaxy, which includes our Earth, would have been the result of a new creation (bara), each having a unique purpose, plan and place within the galaxy. Just as our Earth has been continually formed and changed since its creation, every other star would be going through a similar process of being formed and changed. As astronomers view the galaxies and stars, they see that they are in a continual process of change. They are in reality observing changes that have taken place thousands and millions of years in the past.

Our Solar System

A person can only conjecture as to the order of creative acts that brought our solar system into being. It is believed that God would have created our Sun first as it is the central star in our solar system. Each planet would have been individually created so as to conform to a certain trajectory path around the sun. The moon would have been created to orbit the Earth. Its main purpose is for the establishment of seasons on the earth. The purpose of the earth orbiting around the sun is to establish the length of a year and also for astronomically establishing the 12 months of the year. Earth time began the moment the Earth was created.

The Earth: A Hot Gaseous State

What was the Earth like moments after it was created? Geology maintains that the Earth began in a gaseous state. The Bible maintains the Earth began in a gaseous state. Both records are complementary. The Bible says in Genesis 1:2a, “The earth was without form and void.” (New K.J V.). The New International Bible says, “Now the earth was formless and empty.” Geologists say the Earth consists of rock minerals that can exist in a solid, liquid or gaseous state. Both a solid and a liquid have form, but a gas is formless. It is thus believed that the Earth was created in a hot, formless, gaseous state as a bright star shining in the firmament of heaven.


God began His work of old by formulating a detailed architectural blueprint or plan for the universe and the Earth. The next step was to create all the raw materials for the universe at the time of the Big Bang Creation Event. The third step was to distribute these raw materials in the form of nebular clouds to all parts of the universe of space. The fourth step was to systematically form and gather the nebular clouds into systematic clusters in preparation for the creation of multi-million galaxies throughout space. This would have involved the gathering together of all the essential ingredients of matter that were created at the time of the Big Bang Creation Event. The fifth step was to create our solar system, which included the Earth, within a spiral arm of our Milky Way galaxy.

According to the Bible, the Creator created the Earth by the awesome power of His Word. The Bible says in Psalm 33:9, “He spoke and it was done, He commanded and it stood fast.” Psalm 148:56 says, “He commanded and they were created.” Then we read in Psalm Psalm 33:6, “By the Word of the Lord were the Heavens made and all the host of them by the breath of his mouth.”

The moment God created the Big Bang Creation Event marks the beginning of our universe of time, space, matter and energy. It also marks the beginning of the First Day of Creation. The creation of the Earth marks the beginning of Earth time.

We can conclude, that the sciences of astronomy and geology are remarkably compatible with the Bible record. When it comes to explaining the origin of the Earth, the Bible is remarkably scientific. It greatly enhances the scientific record. The following chapters will give an insight into the remarkable plan that God has for the geological history of the Earth.



1. Hugh Ross, Ph.D., “The Creator and the Cosmos,” How the Greatest Scientific Discoveries of the Century Reveal God, Navpress publishing Group, Colorado, USA, 1993, p.105.
2. Ross, p.109.
3. Ross, p.109.
4. Ross, p.100.
5. Ross, p.110.
6. Ross, p.111.
7. Ross, p.124.
8. Ross, p. 125.
9. Ross, p.128.
10 Ross, P.135.
11. Harry Y. McSween, Jr., “Fanfare for Earth,” The Origin of Our Planet and Life, St. Martin’s Press, New York,1997, p.59. Note: The reader is encouraged to read McSween’s book or similar books on the origin of the Earth and to search the website. Harry Y. McSween, Jr., Ph.D. is head of the department of geological sciences at the University of Tennessee and author of Stardust to Planets (St. Martin’s Press, 1993).
12. McSween, p.59.
13. McSween, p.71
14. Hugh Ross, p.96. Note: The quotation he refers to is found in an article in a Humanist Magazine by David Dvorkin, “Why I am Not A Jew,” Free Inquiry 10, No. 2 (1990).
15. H.Donald Daae, P.Geol., “Bridging the Gap: The First 6 Days,” Genesis International Research Publishers, Calgary, AB Canada, p.24 to 26 & 193-199.

Note: All scripture references were from the New International Version of the Bible or the The New King James Version.

last updated: March 8, 2013
Copyright © 2010 Genesis International Research Association

Creation Basics

The following basic concepts pertaining to creation are further developed in the book Bridging The Gap: The First 6 Days. Beyond demonstrating how creation as outlined in the Bible corresponds to the geological record, it proposes that the absence of the missing links in the fossil record can be readily explained by the creation concept. According to this concept, there were literally thousands of separate and successive acts of creation throughout the long history of the earth. The place where each new species appears in the fossil record marks the approximate time that they were created in adult form by the Creator, with the genetic ability to propagate offspring. This is in contrast to the theory of evolution which maintains that every species has evolved from a previous species.

Our basic belives include:

  • the Bible is the Word of God
  • that God created the earth millions of years ago
  • that the origin of sin occurred during the First Day
  • that God created Man in adult form about 6000 years ago
  • that the worldwide Flood of Noah took place about 4500 years ago

Here are some basic concepts that help us undestand the Biblical account of creation as record in Genesis.

1. The Triune God:
In relation to the universe, God the Father can be likened to the Master Architect who came forth with a master plan, God the Son as the Great Divine Creator who created, formed, made and sustains all things according to that plan, and God the Holy Spirit as the Infinite Indweller, whose role is to nurture and maintain all creation.
2. Four Hebrew Words:
There are four Hebrew words that are of fundamental importance when attempting to understand the methods by which God created the universe.Kun means to prepare something beforehand with a plan in mind.Bara has a primary meaning to create something out of nothing. It has a secondary meaning to change the form, state, and situation of matter, which is totally indisposed for such a change, and requires as great a power as to create something out of nothing. For example, God created man’s body out of previously existing dust, and He created his soul and spirit out of nothing.

Yatsar means to form something out of previous existing matter. This involves a process and it implies the work of a potter molding a beautiful vase out of clay.

Asah has a general meaning often translated as made. It has great latitude, but never to indicate original creation. It also means to appoint. For example, we read in Genesis 1:16, “He made (asah) the sun, moon and stars.” Applying the connotation of “appoint”, this can be interpreted to mean that God gave the sun, moon and stars a new appointment during the Fourth Day, although their original creation (bara) occurred during the First Day. In the meantime, these objects had been subject to a process of continual change (yatsar).

Often these words appear similar to each other, yet are quite different such as is found in Isaiah 45:18: “For thus says the Lord that created [bara] the heavens, who is God who formed [yatsar] the earth and made [asah] it; He has established [kun] it, He created [bara] it not in vain, he formed [yatsar] it to be inhabited. I am the Lord, and there is no other.”

3. Yom, the Hebrew Word Day:
Yom has three basic meanings; a period of daylight, a period of time or a 24 hour day. We maintain that each creation day is best represented by the first two definitions, when scripture in Genesis is compared with scripture in other parts of the Bible. We find that this is complementary to the geological data where each creation day is believed to relate to a geological age that could be millions of years in duration (see History of the Earth Chart, below or in our gallery under Prespectives ).
History of the Earth Chart

History of the Earth Chart

last updated: March 8, 2013
Copyright © 2010 Genesis International Research Association

The Garden of Eden

Adam and Eve were the first human beings on planet earth. They were the first inhabitants of the Garden of Eden. There is a mystery that surrounds the Garden of Eden. Where was it located? When was it formed and created? What was it like?

The Two Garden’s of Eden

The Bible describes two separate and different Garden’s of Eden. The First Primordial Garden of Eden was created and formed by God during the First Day of Creation. Its inhabitants were Lucifer and his angels that God placed under his jurisdiction. This garden was decked with precious gemstones as is described in Ezekiel 28:12-14. This garden was a place of worship, singing and music to almighty God. It was Paradise on earth until one tragic day, sin was found in the heart of Lucifer. He rose up in open rebellion and violence against Almighty God. He began to defile his sanctuaries and led many of his angels into a life of sin and open rebellion against the God who created them. From that moment onward Lucifer became known as Satan or the devil. His angels became known as demons or evil spirits. As a result God’s judgement was pronounced upon them and upon the Earth. From that time forward, the earth became a black sin cursed planet.

It was at this early primordial time that God looked forward through the corridors of time. He saw Man. He purposed in His heart that He would one day create (bara) and form (yatsar) man & woman and would give them the freedom to either receive Him or to reject Him. Secondly, He saw the cross. He knew that the only way he could rid the earth of evil was for His Son to die on a cruel cross to give His body as a sacrifice and to shed His blood for the sins of all mankind. He also saw the entire geological column stretching before Him and the future Garden of Eden that He would one day prepare for Adam and Eve. The fossil record verifies the presence of sin. All plant and animal life from the base of the Proterozoic to the present is a record of life and death. Death is a direct result of sin resulting from the Fall of Lucifer and His angels during the First Day of Creation (The details of the Primordial Garden of Eden will soon be on our website).

The Second Garden of Eden

God prepared a beautiful garden for Adam and Eve, which was located within a place called Eden. We read, “Now the Lord God had planted a garden in the east of Eden; and there He put the man he had formed” (Genesis 2:8).

The exact location of Eden and the Garden of Eden is not known for certainty. There have been speculations as to where it could have been located. The major view today is that it was located somewhere in the vicinity of the Fertile Crescent region of Mesopotamia. Other people speculate it could be in the Black Sea region. The view that is presented here is that it was located in the Caspian Sea region to the north of Mesopotamia.

It is obvious from the Biblical description that Eden was a relatively high plateau region bordered by lofty mountains. There was a large headwater lake within the garden, which was fed by rivers that had its source higher up in the nearby mountains. There were four major river systems that flowed out of this lake and away from the garden, for we read, “Now a river went out of Eden to water the garden, and from there it parted and became four river heads” (Genesis 2:10). This would indicate that a major lake within the Garden of Eden acted as a highly charged dynamic watershed providing abundant water to feed four major river systems that flowed away from the garden to four distinct parts of the earth.

The First River System is believed to have flowed in a northwesterly direction into Asia and Europe. It possibly emptied into the North Sea, for we read: “The name of the first is Pishon; it is the one which encompasses the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold. And the gold of that land is good. Bedellium and the onyx stone are there.” (Genesis 2:11-12) This river provided an access for Early Man to migrate northwestward into Europe and Western Asia.

The Second River System flowed south and southwestward through the land of Caanan along the Jordan River through the Gulf of Aquaba into Ethiopia, and eventually emptied into the Indian Ocean in the vicinity of Mozambique or Tanzania. We read as follows, “The name of the second river is Gihon; it is the one which encompasses the whole land of Cush” (Genesis 2:13). Cush is the ancient name for Ethiopia. The question arises how a river could possibly flow into this region, because it would be physically impossible for this to happen today.

It becomes obvious that physical changes have taken place in the region. The Legg 23b2 of the Deep Sea Drilling Project aboard the R.V. Glomar Challenger was devoted to scientific drilling in the central and southern Red Sea. Drilling revealed that the Red Sea Rift Valley is underlain by Late Miocene evaporites, including rock salt, at relatively shallow depths throughout most of its extent. These evaporates are absent only in the central rift valley zone that is underlain by recent igneous basaltic rock. It was reported in Science [179 (1973), p. 379] “that there were rocks as old or older than the late Miocene (about 5 million years) within one or two miles of a supposedly active spreading centre. One interpretation of the magnetic anomaly pattern from this area indicates that rocks no older than about 2 million years should be present based on the assumption that a continuous Tertiary spreading history exists for the Red Sea. A more reasonable interpretation is that spreading resumed only recently in the Red Sea following a period of quiescence that may have extended back into the early Miocene.” In other words, Pleistocene and Late Miocene sediments are absent in the central region of the Red Sea Rift Valley. This indicates non deposition or erosion. The spreading or rifting of the Red Sea appears to be Recent (i.e. took place at the end of the Pleistocene, which coincides with Noah’s Flood). The central portion of the north south trending rift zone contains heavy metal rich black shale deposits and basalt igneous rocks, similar to deep oceanic tholeütic basalts. The temperatures along the rift zone are unusually high, and the zone is characterized by hot brine occurrences. This would indicate the escape of continuing hot juvenile waters along the central portion of the rift valley.

Prior to the end of the Pleistocene, Africa was joined to Saudi Arabia and the active spreading center of the Red Sea was not present. Geophysical studies have revealed a very recent opening of the Red Sea region.

It is also important to realize that the history of the Red Sea Rift Valley extends back in time for many millions of years. However, the central portion of the Red Sea is very young. This is also confirmed by the warmer waters above the igneous tholeutic basalts.

This second river system from the Garden of Eden is envisaged to have flowed southward along the topographically low rift valley region that extends through the land of Caanan. It would have followed the Jordan River through the Gulf of Aquaba into the Red Sea region. It would have continued to follow the East African Rift Valley through the land of Ethiopia and southward through Kenya, Tanzania and eventually emptying into the Indian Ocean. This would have provided an excellent access for the early descendants of Adam and Eve to migrate into Africa. They would have been the early people who manufactured the stone tools that archaeologists have classified as the Oldowan and Acheulian cultures.

The Third River System flowed eastward from the Garden of Eden. It possibly passed through the interior part of Asia, perhaps through the Gobi Desert region, emptying eventually into the Pacific Ocean, for we read: “The name of the third river is Hiddekal; it is the one which goes toward the east of Assyria” (Genesis 2:14). This provided an access for early Pre-Flood Man to migrate eastward into China, Australia, and North and South America.

The Fourth River system flowed south easterly through the fertile crescent region of Mesopotamia, emptying into the Persian Gulf. It was known as the Euphrates River, for we read: “The fourth river is the Euphrates” (Genesis 2:14); given this refers to the river known as the Euphrates today. It would seem that Adam and Eve themselves may have journeyed southeastward from the Garden of Eden, and settled in the rich area of the fertile crescent region. The ancient home of Noah is believed to be just north of the present Persian Gulf.

It will remain for geologists and geomorphologists to identify and map the above mentioned river systems. These channels would probably now be infilled with gravels and sands. Local and regional post Pleistocene movements would make their identification more difficult to observe.

When Did God prepare the Garden of Eden?

It is here believed that the second Garden of Eden was prepared sometime between 6,000 to 10,000 years ago. Pleistocene geologists Ernst Antevs 3,4,5 and American and Gerard DeGreer6 a European describe a marked temperature rise that took place at about 10,000+ years ago. This marked the end of the Wisconsin (Wurm) Glaciation and the beginning of the Neothermal Age. The term Neothermal means the New Warm Age. It more accurately replaces the more indefinite Post Glacial / Recent terminology. Neothermal stresses the fact that this age has been relatively warm and is comparable to the interglacial periods which may be appropriately named thermal or warm. They divided the Neothermal Age into three smaller ages called the Anathermal, the age of rising temperature; the Altithermal, the age of higher temperature; and the Medithermal the age of moderate temperature (see Figure 1).

Figure 1: A Biblical and Geologically based chronology of the history of man.

Figure 1: A Biblical and Geologically based chronology of the history of man.

Antevs and DeGreer were able to date glacial lake sediments back for 20,000 and 40,000+ years into the past on the basis of counting the varved, annually bedded glacial lake clays and silts. Varved clays are formed in fresh water lakes from mud brought by glacial melt water streams. Normally, one light colored relatively course or silty laminae are deposited in the summer and one dark greasy laminae in winter. The couplet is called a varve and is frequently about an inch thick. Sequences of varves are measured in clay exposures and the measurements are graphed correlated and combined in continuous series after a method devised and described by Gerard deGreer and Ernst Antevs (deGreer, p.16; Antevs 1922, p.3 and Antevs 1925,p.9). In this manner chronological records have been obtained from glacial lake sediments in Sweden, Finland, and North America.

The geological Anathermal Age began about 10,000 years ago. It marks the end of the cold Wisconsin (Wurm) Glaciation and the commencement of a pronounced warming of the climate. This progressive global warming was associated with great moisture and luxuriant growth of trees and other vegetation. All the inland lakes in northern Europe and in the USA and parts of Canada were filled with water resulting from glacial melt water and a moist form of precipitation. The areas that were previously desert became areas of lush vegetation that were able to provide abundant food for animal life. For example the Sahara Desert was grown over with lush vegetation that accommodated abundant animal life (see www.gira. Newsletter Vol. 13, no.2). This was indeed an ideal, logical and optimum time for the Lord God to plant and prepare the beautiful Garden of Eden for we read, “Now the Lord God planted a garden in the east of Eden and there He put the man that He had formed.” (Genesis 2:8)

The Creation of Plants & Animals in Eden

The Bible says that the Lord God planted a garden eastward in Eden and there he put the Man that he had formed. This may imply that the dynamic headwater lake was located in the western part of Eden, whereas the beautiful garden of plants were more eastward. We read, “Now the Lord God planted a garden in the east of Eden” (Genesis 2:8).

It would appear that God created entirely new species of plants in this garden, that were unique and different from any other part of the Earth. It is believed that when God created each new species of plant life, that he would have first formed the seed of each species out of clay (dust), and through the power of His Word, He would have created the life within that seed. This seed was then planted by the Creator in good soil where it would have grown, producing the characteristics written within the genetic code (DNA) of each new species. It is possible that the many species of domestic cereal crops, fruit trees and vegetables so vital to man for food were created within this garden. Dr. Stern (Stern, 1969) has this to say, “It was the Middle East that gave Man some of his most important crops such as wheat, barley, lentils, and peas. There too, sheep, goats, and cattle were first domesticated. The use of metal also first began there.”

Outside of the garden were many species of plant life that had been growing wild for thousands of years. There were also wild animals that had been on earth for multi thousands of years. Truly, the environment was more hostile outside of this garden. This becomes evident after Adam and Eve sinned. God had to literally force them to leave the Garden of Eden.

Climate and weather wise, the Garden of Eden was ideal. It was like paradise itself. It contained all the essential ingredients to satisfy all aspects of Man: his spirit, his soul and his body, for we read, “And out of the ground the Lord God made every tree grow that is pleasant to the sight and good for food. The tree of Life was also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.” (Genesis 2:9)

First, the Lord God made “every tree grow that was pleasant to the eyes” (Genesis 4:). This satisfied his soul. It is said that the eyes are the windows of the soul. It is through the eye gate that Man perceives the pleasant beauty of the outside world. This gives pleasure and satisfaction to his soul.

Second, “the Lord God made every tree grow that was good for food” (Genesis 4:). This satisfied his body. The many varieties of fruit on the trees and vegetables in the garden were for the nourishment and health of his physical body.

Third, the Lord God made the tree of Life which was in the midst of the garden as well as the tree of knowledge of good and evil. The tree of Life was to satisfy his spirit. God gave Adam definite instructions with respect to these two trees, for we read: “And the Lord God commanded the Man, saying, “Of every tree of the garden you may freely eat; but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat, for in the day that you eat of it you shall surely die.” (Genesis 2:16[-]17) God created within Man the freedom to make his own choices. As Creator, God expected Man to acknowledge Him and to be obedient to His Word. So he gave Man a choice between obeying or disobeying Him. It is the same choice that man and woman must make today.

As long as Adam and Eve obeyed God and ate of the tree of Life, their spirit was satisfied and they would have lived forever (see Genesis 3:23). However, God warned that if they should ever disobey Him and eat of the forbidden fruit that they would surely die. God was speaking a language that Adam could understand because death was already present within the animal and plant kingdoms resulting from Lucifer’s sin. This was a test of Adam’s obedience.

Just prior to the creation of Adam and Eve, the Lord God created new species of animal life, for we read: “Now the Lord God had formed out of the ground all the beasts of the field and all the birds of the air. He brought them to the man (Adam) to see what he would name them; and whatever the man called each living creature, that was its name. So the man gave names to all the livestock, the birds of the air and all the beasts of the field” (Genesis 2:19-20 NIV).

This was the final series of animal creations before the end of the Sixth Day. It is important to realize that outside of the Garden of Eden, the Earth was already inhabited by many thousands of species of animal life that had been there for hundreds and thousands of years. However, within the garden, entirely new species of domestic animal life were created. It is likely that cattle, sheep, goats, dogs, cats, chickens, turkeys and other animals and birds used by man for domestic purposes were created at this time. God gave Adam the responsibility of naming each of these animal and bird species in the garden.

Cattle belong to the split hoofed animals. Geology confirms that the wild varieties of split hoofed animals such as deer, moose, buffalo, elk can be traced back in the fossil record for many thousands and millions of years. Cattle are not found in the fossil record. They are a more recent creation. Wild sheep and goats can be traced back for millions of years, however, domestic sheep and goats are not found in the fossil record. Domestic dogs, cats, chickens etc are recent creations. They cannot survive without the help and assistance of Man.

This Garden of Eden was Paradise on Earth because the Tree of Life was present in the midst of this garden. After the Fall of Adam and Eve the Tree of life was removed. Today, the Tree of Life is in Paradise. When Jesus was on the Cross, there were two criminals on either side of Him. One criminal rejected Him. The other accepted Him. He said to the thief who accepted Him, “Assuredly, I say to you, today you will be with me in Paradise” (Luke 23: 43).

Possible Location of the Garden of Eden

Much mystery and speculation surrounds the possible location of the geographical region called Eden. It was in Eden where the Garden of Eden was located. Most Bible scholars seem to place its location in the vicinity of the fertile crescent of Mesopotamia, or westward in the general vicinity of Asia Minor or even as far west as the Black Sea region..

This manuscript places the possible location of Eden directly to the east of the Caucasus Mountains and to the north of the Elbruz Mountains in the vicinity of the Caspian Sea (Figure 2)(Charlesworth,). Under this scenario, the Caspian Sea would have been the dynamic large headwater lake that would have been the source for the four major river systems that flowed out from Eden. The beautiful Garden would have been to the east of this lake, for we read, “Now the Lord God had planted a garden IN THE EAST, in Eden; and there He put the man that He had formed” (Genesis 2:8).

Figure 2: Map Showing the Caspian Sea region with the Greater Caucasus and the Talish Mountains to the west; the Elburz and the Shah Jaman Mountains to the south and east. Courtesy of hhtp://

Figure 2: Map Showing the Caspian Sea region with the Greater Caucasus and the Talish Mountains to the west; the Elburz and the Shah Jaman Mountains to the south and east. Courtesy of hhtp://

Critics would be quick to point out that this would be an impossible region for the Garden of Eden, because the present day Caspian Sea is a low lying, land locked, salty sea where nothing grows or lives and the adjacent area to the east is dry, desert like and relatively barren. The Caspian Sea is 28 meters (92 feet) below sea level. Rivers from all directions flow into it and it does not have an outlet. The Caspian Sea is presently the largest inland body of water in the world. It extends about 1207 km (750 miles) in a north-south direction and varies in width from 209km to 435km (130 to 270 miles). It has a mean depth of approximately 168 meters (550 feet) with extremes ranging from 8 meters (26 feet) in the north to about 975 meters (3200 feet) in the south.

In order to reconcile the apparent paradox of what the Garden of Eden was and what it is today, it is necessary to find the answer in geology.


Science, 1973, p.379. R.V. Challenger, Legg 23b of the Deep Sea Drilling Project aboard the RV Glomar Challenger.

Antevs, Ernest. Retreat of the Last Ice Sheet in Eastern Canada. Geol. Survey Canada, Mem. 146, 1925.

Antevs, Ernst. The Recession of the Last Ice Sheet in New England. Amer. Geog. Soc., Research Ser. 11, 1922.

Antevs, Ernest. Geochronology of the Deglacial and Neothermal Ages. The Journal of Geology, Vol.61, Number 3, May 1953.

DeGreer, Gerard, Geochronologia Suecica Principles, Svenska, Vetenskapsakad, Handl., Vol. 18, No. 6, 1940.

Stern Philip VanDoren, Prehistoric Europe from Stone Age Man to the Early Greeks NY Norton, 1969, p.211

Professor Charlesworth, The Quaternary Era p: 604-605



last updated: March 7, 2013
Copyright © 2010 Genesis International Research Association

The Origin of Man

There is a mystery that surrounds the origin of Man. When did man appear on the earth and how? The Bible is definite as to how God created man and woman. However, the Bible is not definite as to the exact time in terms of Earth years that Man was created by God. Atheists have attempted to prove that man and woman were never created. They maintain that Man & woman just evolved from a previous ape ancestry. Atheist Richard Bozarth (Bozarth, 1978) wrote an article in The American Atheist September 1978 entitled, “The Meaning of Evolution.” The gist of the article describes a battle between two ideologies, Christianity and Atheistic Evolution.

Bozarth clearly states that the purpose of Atheistic Evolution is to scientifically prove that Adam and Eve never existed, that the Fall of Man never took place, that there is no such thing as original sin (see article in vol.10, no.1). This is the reason why evolutionists have extended the life span of Man to many hundreds and thousands of years into the past. Unfortunately some Christians have fallen for this deceptive lie.

Fortunately, the science of geology has now confirmed the Biblical account of a more recent appearance of man and woman. The History of Man chart (Figure 4) shows the sudden appearance of man and woman at about 6,000 + years ago during the latter part of the Anathermal Age. This date fits Biblical chronology. It also allows an indefinite time prior to 6,000 years. It is dangerous to set definite dates or to say with certainty when Man was created or when the Flood took place. With respect to the return of Jesus Christ we read, “But of that day and hour no one knows, no, not even the angels of Heaven, but my Father only. But as the days of Noah were, so also will the coming of the Son of man be. —- Therefore you also be ready, for the son of man is coming at an hour when you do not expect Him” (Mathew 24:36 & 44). We as Christians are to live as though Christ could come today. We are also to plan as though it could be 50 years, 100 years or more. As Dr. Robert Schuller of the Hour of Power Broadcast often says, “The past is history; the future is a mystery; the present is a gift.” It is a gift from God to cherish. The Bible says “Now (the present) is the time of salvation” (2 Cor. 6:2). Tomorrow may be too late.

Figure 1: A Biblical and Geologically based chronology of the history of man.

Figure 1: A Biblical and Geologically based chronology of the history of man.

The Biblical Origin & History of Man

God’s crowning act of creation was the creation of man and woman, Adam & Eve, at the end of the Sixth Day. This was about 6,000+ years ago. God, alone, knows the number of earth years prior to 6,000 years that this most significant event took place. Adam was created first, than Eve. The Sixth Day terminated the moment Eve was created. This marks the beginning of the Seventh Day that has continued to the present. The story of the Seventh Day the day on which God rested is, therefore, the story and history of Man. The Biblical account of the Seventh Day is a record of the history of Man from his initial creation to his future termination on the Earth. This future event will terminate the Seventh Day. After that a new day will dawn.

The combinations of Biblical and scientific evidences provide a means to identify the stages of Man’s early history and development and to place them in a more meaningful chronological context. In turn, understanding the history of Man in this perspective deepens our knowledge and understanding of a number of important events described in the Bible. There is a remarkable compatibility between the secular record of Man and the Biblical record. However, the Bible record goes beyond the secular record in that it gives a glimpse as to what will take place in the future. This record is in reality His Story.

Jesus Christ is the central figure of human history. Our calendar confirms that the Cross of Christ divides human history into two distinct parts: before Christ (BC) and (AD) after Christ. Jesus Christ brought about the beginning of human history and He will bring about its end. All human beings from Adam and Eve to the present have been given the freedom to either receive Him or to reject Him.

The beginning of the Seventh Day is described in the Bible as follows, “In six days the Lord made the heavens and the Earth, the sea, and all that is in them, and rested on the seventh day.” (Exodus 20:11) The New International Bible offers this description, “Thus the heavens and the earth were created in all their vast array. By the seventh day God had finished the work he had been doing; so on the seventh day he rested from all his work. And God blessed the seventh day and made it holy, because on it he rested from all the work of creating that he had done” (Exodus 20:11).

The Seventh Day is God’s day of rest. This means that God ceased His work of creating something new such as a new galaxy, star, moon, comet, or a new species of plant or animal life. This does not mean that God had stopped working in other areas. Jesus said, “My Father has been working until now and I have been working until now.” John 5:17

The Bible implies that the foundation of the world of Mankind was established at the creation of Adam and Eve. We read, “The works (of creation) were finished from the foundation of the world (the world of Man). For He has spoken in a certain place of the Seventh Day in this way: And God rested on the seventh Day from all His works (of Creation)” (Hebrews 4: 3b-4). In other words Adam & Eve were created, formed and made during the 6th Day, whereas all their children and their descendants were born during the 7th Day. A new age began at this point in time. God gave all Mankind a choice at the commencement of the Seventh Day to follow Him and to enter into His rest. The alternative was to harden their hearts and to turn away from God into a life of unbelief. Every person today has the same freedom to either accept Him or to reject Him. Jesus is saying to all Mankind, “Come to Me, all you who labor and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest. Take My yoke upon you and learn from Me, for I am gentle and lowly in heart, and you will find rest for your souls. For My yoke is easy and My burden is light” (Mathew 11:28-30)

The Seventh Day is an interval of time that began the moment Eve was created. It has continued to the present and will continue until the termination of the History of Man takes place at which time the Earth will be destroyed by fire, “But the day of the Lord will come as a thief in the night. The heavens will pass away with great noise, and the elements will melt with great heat; both the earth and the works that are in it will be burned up.” (2 Pete 3:10). After this event a new day will dawn, which could be called the 8th Day for we read, “But in keeping with His promise we are looking for a new heaven and a new earth, the home of righteousness” (2 Peter 3:13) NIV.

The Creation of Adam & Eve

The final and crowning act of all God’s creation took place about 6000 + years ago, when God created Man, or more specifically, Adam and Eve. This great event is described as follows: “And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the Earth, and over every creeping thing that creeps upon the Earth. So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him, male and female created he them.” (Genesis 1:26-27)

God formed, created and made man and woman according to a plan full of meaning and purpose. Genesis 1:26 says, “Let us make man in our image and after our likeness.” This is a plan and it reveals the plurality of the Godhead. It describes the plan that was conceived in the mind of God the Father who is saying to God the Son and God the Holy Spirit let us make man & woman in our image and after our likeness. This plan was two fold.

The first part of this plan was to create Man in His own image. The work involved in creating man & woman was accomplished by God the Son, the Creator of all life. He carried out the perfect will and plan of His Father by creating Man. We read in Genesis 1-27: “So God (Elohim) created man in His own image, in the image of God created He him; male and female created He them.” The word create is the Hebrew word [bara], which always implies original creation. Man and woman were not present in any other form or state prior to this act of special creation by the Creator.

Figure 2: The God of Creation, One God with Three Persons

Figure 2: The God of Creation, One God with Three Persons

The second part of this plan was to make man & woman after Our likeness. This little phrase is full of meaning and purpose. It implies a process that begins at birth and continues throughout our lifes. To be formed after the likeness of God means receiving Him into our lives, to follow, obey, serve, honor, worship, glorify Him in all that we do and say. God said of King David, “He is a man after my own heart” (Acts 13:22). Then we read, “He (David) will do everything I want him to do.” (Act 13:22b). This implies that God could see that David had a tender heart for Him. God knew David would fulfill all His plans and purposes during his lifetime. David was not a perfect man, but whenever he realized his sin, he was willing to repent and to confess his sin and to ask for forgiveness. John tells us why God could say this about an imperfect David. We read, “David served God’s purpose in his own generation” (Acts 13:36 NIV). In other words David fulfilled all of God’s purposes and plans for his life during his brief time on earth. If it were not for David, we would not have the Psalms and many other portions of scripture in the Old Testament. Truly David lived a meaningful and purposeful life.

How did God create Adam & Eve?

According to the Hebrew Scriptures, Jesus Christ, the Creator of the universe, came down from Heaven’s glory to the Earth and formed (yatsar) Adam’s body out of the dust of the ground. We read “And the Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul” (Genesis 2:7). This word yatsar means to form something new out of previous existing matter. It implies the work of a Potter who is molding a beautiful vase out of clay. In like manner Jesus Christ, the Master Potter was molding a human body out of clay. He then breathed into Adams nostrils the breath of life. The Hebrew word for breath is [ruach], which means life or spirit. When he breathed into man’s nostrils the breath of life, he created a spirit in man. In this same miraculous transaction Man became a living soul (nephesh). In other words, God created (bara) the true life within Adams body, which was his spirit and soul, which were never in existence prior to this point in time. The relationship between these words is illustrated in figure 3.


Figure 3: The four Hebrew Words

Figure 3: The four Hebrew Words

In this miraculous, supernatural transaction, the dead dust particles instantly became living flesh and blood. This is what we mean by special creation. Adam was created by God in adult form with a spirit, soul and body. Adam’s body was created out of previous existing clay or dust, whereas his soul and spirit were created out of no previous created matter. When man dies, his body returns to dust. His spirit and soul go either to Heaven or Gehennah.

God realized that Man was lonely by himself and needed a mate, for we read: “And the Lord God said, it is not good that the man should be alone; I will make (asah) a helpmate for him” (Genesis 2:18). God could have matched Adam with some type of animal or ape in the Garden of Eden, but he did not, for we read: “But for Adam there was not found a help mate for him” (Genesis 2:20).

When God created and formed Eve, he used a different technique. He did not create her in the same way, otherwise she would probably have been of a different species. But God in his wisdom put Adam into a deep sleep and performed surgery. In this unusual transaction he removed one of Adam’s ribs and from this rib created a woman, for we read: “And the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, and he slept; and He took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh thereof. And the rib, which the Lord God had taken from man, made he a woman, and brought her unto man.” (Genesis 2:21-22)

God related Adam and Eve genetically, so that they would be of the same species. They, now, both had a common genetic code (DNA) within their living cells that was capable of reproducing their genetic characteristics in fertile young. Adam realized this genetic relationship, for he says: “This is now bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh: she shall be called Woman, for she was taken out of Man” (Genesis 2:23).

The Bible says that every human being on the Earth can trace their ancestry back to Adam and Eve, for we read: “And Adam called his wife’s name Eve; because she was the mother of all living” (Genesis 3:20). In other words, Eve is the mother of the entire human race. There is not a person regardless of the color of his skin who is not able to trace his or her ancestry back to mother Eve and to father Abraham.

God’s Method of Creating New Species

The method God used to create man & woman, which biologists refer to as the species Homo sapien, is the same method He would have used to create every species of animal life on earth. Each of the millions of species of animal life that have ever lived from the Proterozoic to the present would have been formed and created in the same manner. The male species would have been formed and created first in adult form, than the female. The female would have been genetically related to the male just as Eve was genetically related to Adam, so that they would have been of the same species. They, then, would have able to reproduce fertile offspring from generation to generation. We read, “God made (asah) the wild animals each according to their kinds, the livestock according to their kinds and all the creatures that move along the ground according to their kinds” (Genesis 1:24). The Hebrew word asah is always translated made or make. It never implies original creation. However it means that the animal that God has made was formed (yatsar) and created (bara) by the Creator as a unique new species. According to biologists only the species category on the taxonomic table is capable of reproducing fertile offspring.

Plant life was probably formed and created in a slightly different way. It is possible that the Creator would have formed each seed or spore out of the dust of the ground. He would then have created the true life within that seed or spore with all the genetic information necessary for that seed or spore to spore and to reproduce itself from generation to generation. For instance when God created plant life in Eden we read, “And the Lord God made all kinds of trees to grow out of the ground” (Genesis 2:8) NIV. If the trees grew out of the ground, they must have sprouted from a seed or a spore that had been planted in the soil by God. We also read, “The land produced vegetation: seed bearing plants and trees on the land that bear fruit with seed in it, according to their various kinds” (Genesis 1:12) NIV. Here the word “kinds” refer to the biological term species. By definition a species is the only category on the taxonomic chart that is capable of reproducing offspring.


The scientific data of geology and human paleontology verifies a more recent appearance of Man on the earth at about 6,000+ years before the present. It is believed that God created Adam & Eve toward the latter part of the Anathermal Age. All their offspring relate to the Altithermal and Medithermal Ages. The Creation of Eve resulted in the termination of the Sixth Day of Creation and the commencement of the Seventh Day. This, in reality, is the History of man & woman. It is also a time when the God of the universe entered into His rest of creating anything new. During the Seventh Day no new stars, planets, comets, solar systems, galaxies or any new species of animal or plant life have been created. However, whatever God has created continues to experience change.


Richard Bozarth, The Meaning of Evolution. The American Atheist, September 10, 1978.

last updated: March 7, 2013
Copyright © 2010 Genesis International Research Association