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The Barbados Coral Reef Studies

In 1988, Rick Fairbank(Ryan & Pitman, 1999;p154) a research scientist at Lamont-Doherty chartered a ship to explore the modern coral reef on the Barbados in the Caribbean. He concentrated on the last Ice Age thaw of about 25,000 years ago to its present postglacial thaw. He was successful in coring hundreds of feet of reef in 16 separate hole. The coral growth encompassed an interval in time from the Middle Ages to nearly 20,000 years into the past.

In dating his coral samples Fairbanks used both the carbon 14 clock and a new method of Thermal Ionization Spectrometry (TIMS). Fairbanks received help from a young postdoctoral fellow named Edouard Bard. They were able to determine that much of the total ice cap melting took place in two brief and rapid spurts separated by an interval lasting a little over a 1,000 years, at which time the climate returned to near Ice Age conditions.

Rivers Flowed Southward into the Black Sea

The first rapid warming pulse, on the Basis of the Barbados reef studies, was dated as beginning 12,500 B.C.(14,500 B.P.) As a result, the many Great Lakes along the southern rim of the Eurasian Ice Sheet became in-filled with water. These lakes filled the sag in the earth’s crust caused by the weight of ice. At this time the lakes were dammed along their southern margins. As these lakes in-filled with water, they one by one breached the crest bulge and flowed southward to the Aral, and Black Seas via the Danube, the Dniester, the Dneiper and the Don Rivers. These southern lakes became in-filled with fresh water. The widespread “New Euxine” freshwater sediments were thus deposited in these southern lakes.

The second rapid warming spike, on the basis of the Brabados studies, began in 9,400 B.C. (11,400 B.P.). This is based upon the Barbados reef growth. According to Ryan & Pitman, the evidence of this event is not found in the Black Sea sediments.

Rivers Flowed Northward into the Black Sea

Ryan and Pitman say, “When the ice caps of Britain, Scandinavia, Holland, northern Germany, Poland and Russia had started to recede, the “great lakes” on their southern margins became trapped in the depressions made by the weight of the ice. The peripheral buldge directed the upper reaches of the today’s Dniester, Dnieper, Don, and Volga rivers to flow away from the Black Sea and westward across Poland and over Berlin to the North Sea.”(Ryan & Pitman, 1999;p157) At this point in time, the direction of the great rivers were reversed and flowed northward into the North Sea.

As a result, the Black Sea was cut off from melt water from the great ice sheet in Northern Europe. The level of the Black Sea began to lower below the level of the external oceans. Just as Bulgarian scientist, Petko Dimitrov had formerly confirmed. Ryan and Pitman say, “By 5600 B.C. (7,600 B.P.), its shoreline lay 350 feet below the top of the Bosporus Dam. It was then, with the global ocean at 50 feet below today’s sea level, according to Fairbanks corals, that the trickle of salt water started, carrying larvae that would become the Black Sea’s first immigrants.”(Ryan & Pitman, 1999;p157)

The Breaching of the Bosporus Strait

There was a sudden powerful inflow of water through the Bosporus Strait into the Black Sea from the Mediterranean (Aegean) Sea. The Ocean water quickly inundated the Black Sea region. Pitman investigated in greater detail the mystery of this dramatic flooding.

Pitman believed the barrier in the Bosporus dam had been breached, but lacked direct evidence. He went to the Istanbul Technical University and consulted with several leading Turkish scientists. He was shown evidence of sea bottom cores that were taken in 1985 and 1986, when plans were progressing to build the Galata bridge across the Bosporus Strait. The Turkish scientists had come to the conclusion that the overlying dark gray sediments were no older than 7,500 years. This is based upon C-14 dating. Turkish navy had surveyed the sea bottom by echo sounding. They had also used seismic reflection profilers more powerful than the CHIRP to probe the configuration of the sediment fill in both the Dardenelles and the Bosporus. These surveys revealed, “that the bedrock surface tended to deepen as the survey progressed from the Aegean opening near Canakkale northward through the Bosporus.” This evidence verified that the Bosporus Strait had been breached. The channel had scoured into the underlying bedrock which consisted of contorted sandstone and shale of Devonian Age.


William Ryan & Walter Pitman, “Noah’s Flood” with the caption, “The New Scientific Discoveries About the Event That Changed History,” produced by Simon & Schuster, New York, 1999. All references are to be found in Ryan & Pitman’s book, “Noah’s flood.” Ross and Degens survey aboard the Atlantis 11 in 1969 is also referenced in this book.

last updated: February 27, 2013
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