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Early Man in the Black Sea Region

The term “Early Man” in this Newsletter relates to the people who lived prior to Noah’s Flood. Archaeology and anthropology would relate the term “Early Man” to the Great Stone Age period that in turn can be divided into the Paleolithic, Mesolithic and the Neolithic ages. We consider Egypt as the type section for determining when the Great Stone Age period came to a sudden termination.

Newsletter, Vol. 12, No. 2, (see www.gira.ca) relates the geology, archaeology and anthropology of East Africa with the Egyptian Type Section. Past Newsletters have also shown how other site-specific areas of the Middle East and Europe are remarkably compatible to Egypt. This Newsletter, will be relating the Egyptian Type Section to the Black Sea region.

The Black Sea & The Flood

Two distinguished earth scientists William Ryan and Walter Pitman at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Massachusetts, USA published a book in 1998 called, “Noah’s Flood.” 1 After reviewing this book, I have found it to be scientifically and geologically sound. It is the basis for this paper. I trust it will stimulate the reader to purchase a copy of this book for their edification.

If Noah’s Flood is a true historical and geological event, would one expect to find evidences of this catastrophic event in the Black Sea region? Two distinguished USA scientists, Ryan and Pitman believe they have scientific evidence for Noah’s Flood occurring about 7,500 years before the present. They imply that the Black sea Flood occurred during the Neolithic age, which is the age of polished stone. The date of 7,500 is based upon the latest cyrogenic vacuum device of C14 dating.

In Genesis International Research, we favor a date closer to 4,500 years before the present. This view is based primarily upon the Egyptian Type Section, which reveals that the Flood of Noah brought the Neolithic age in Egypt to a drammatic close about 4,500 years before the present (see Newsletter vol.12, no.2 @www.gira.ca). This view is also supported by the geological record that in turn is based upon work done by Pleistocene geologists in America and Europe who categorized the last 10,000 years of earth’s history into the Anathermal, Altithermal and Medithermal ages (Figure 1). This terminolgy is also remarkably compatible with the Biblical record.

Figure 1: A Biblical and Geologically based chronology of the history of man.

Figure 1: A Biblical and Geologically based chronology of the history of man.

These above mentioned dates of 7,500 and 4,500 years are remarkably in the same ballpark. Further research will undoubtedly bring them closer together, revealing that they are products of the same catastrophic event, because they are both underlain by sediments of Neolithic age.

The Black Sea is a huge inland basin underlain by a thin oceanic crust and is over 6,000 feet deep. It is now surrounded by continental crust on all sides. It is fed by numerous large fresh water rivers. Its inflow of fresh water exceeds it evaporation. Its only fresh water outlet is southward to the Mediterranean through the narrow bottleneck of the Bosporus Strait. Below the upper column of fresh water that is flowing southward is marine salt water that is flowing northward from the Mediterranean (Aegean Sea) through the Bosporus Strait into the Black Sea.

Black Sea Surveys

Much valuable research has now been conducted within the Black Sea and in surrounding regions. In 1967, a team of geologists and chemists at the renowned Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution on Cape Cod, Massachusetts had hoped to follow up on earlier discoveries at Port Said in Egypt. As a result of the 1967 Egyptian / Israeli war, this project was cancelled, then diverted to the Black Sea. This survey was led by David Ross and Egon Degens.1 Their ship the Atlantis 11 was used for mapping and sampling the seabed of the Black Sea in 1969 (see Figure 2).

Ross and Degens reported that the top 40 inches of the first core sample was a soft dark black, jelly like mud. Below this was hard light gray clay. Everywhere they went to recover additional core, the sequence of black mud overlying light gray clay was the same. The black mud had abundant organic animal and plant remains indicative of a marine environment. The light gray clay had minimal organic plant and animal remains indicative of a fresh water, dry land environment.

Ross and Degens came to the following conclusions as reported by Ryan & Pitman, “In the past the Black Sea had transformed itself into a lake; it was linked to the Mediterranean only by a narrow outlet not deep enough to permit the continued entry of marine water from outside. This condition had been established more than 20,000 years ago when ice sheets covered Scandinavia, northern Europe, and all of Canada. The building of continent sized glaziers to a mile or more in thickness, as first envisioned by Loius Agassiz, had caused the withdrawal of global sea level below the level of the floor of the Dardenelles and Bosporus Straits. When the ice over Russia eventually began to thaw, much of its meltwater was delivered into the Black Sea’s Ice Age Lake. The light gray clay in Ross and Degens’s cores came from the melt water as a milky suspension via the Danube, Dnieper, Dniester,and the Don rivers. Eventually there came a time when the giant lake turned back into a saltwater lake.” They go on to say, “This event was marked in the Atlantis II sediment cores by the abrupt change from light gray clay to black mud and by the simultaneous disappearance of the skeletal remains of freshwater organisms and their replacement by creatures that lived only in brackish water or salt water.” 3 In other words they were observing a rapid faunal replacement. What could have caused this rapid change and how long ago did it occur?

Figure 1: Early Man in the Black Sea Region

Figure 1: Early Man in the Black Sea Region

This was the logical explanation that Ross and Degenss perceived. They did detect a recent rapid faunal replacement from continental to marine from the core data, however, this was a year before the Glomar Challenger scientists had discovered the catastrophic in flow of sea water through the Strait of Gibralter into the Mediterranean. Ross and Egens had no reason to suspect any catastrophic inflow of salt water from the Mediterranean into the Black Sea. They based their interpretation upon traditional thinking.

They were unaware that the Russian scientists had previously stumbled on a valuable clue. The Soviets built a bridge across the Kerch Strait. This Strait is four miles wide and twenty miles long. It connects the Sea of Azov with the north part of the Black Sea. The engineers drilled a series of holes to learn the depth to bedrock. They discovered a deep channel more than 200 feet deep beneath the Straits bottom. This deep channel was infilled with sand, gravel, and snails diagnostic of a terrestrial streambed. They concluded that the entire Sea of Azov was formerly a dry tract across which a river would have had to cut its valley for more than 100 miles in order to reach the shoreline of the shrinking Black Sea. Directly above the light gray dry clay was a dark gray marine mud.

The Soviets realized this entire dry land had been suddenly inundated with sea water. There was a complete faunal replacement from a desert to fairly deep water marine molluska fauna that had come in from the Mediterranean. Its explanation remained a mystery.

 

 

last updated: February 27, 2013
Copyright © 2010 Genesis International Research Association

The Barbados Coral Reef Studies

In 1988, Rick Fairbank(Ryan & Pitman, 1999;p154) a research scientist at Lamont-Doherty chartered a ship to explore the modern coral reef on the Barbados in the Caribbean. He concentrated on the last Ice Age thaw of about 25,000 years ago to its present postglacial thaw. He was successful in coring hundreds of feet of reef in 16 separate hole. The coral growth encompassed an interval in time from the Middle Ages to nearly 20,000 years into the past.

In dating his coral samples Fairbanks used both the carbon 14 clock and a new method of Thermal Ionization Spectrometry (TIMS). Fairbanks received help from a young postdoctoral fellow named Edouard Bard. They were able to determine that much of the total ice cap melting took place in two brief and rapid spurts separated by an interval lasting a little over a 1,000 years, at which time the climate returned to near Ice Age conditions.

Rivers Flowed Southward into the Black Sea

The first rapid warming pulse, on the Basis of the Barbados reef studies, was dated as beginning 12,500 B.C.(14,500 B.P.) As a result, the many Great Lakes along the southern rim of the Eurasian Ice Sheet became in-filled with water. These lakes filled the sag in the earth’s crust caused by the weight of ice. At this time the lakes were dammed along their southern margins. As these lakes in-filled with water, they one by one breached the crest bulge and flowed southward to the Aral, and Black Seas via the Danube, the Dniester, the Dneiper and the Don Rivers. These southern lakes became in-filled with fresh water. The widespread “New Euxine” freshwater sediments were thus deposited in these southern lakes.

The second rapid warming spike, on the basis of the Brabados studies, began in 9,400 B.C. (11,400 B.P.). This is based upon the Barbados reef growth. According to Ryan & Pitman, the evidence of this event is not found in the Black Sea sediments.

Rivers Flowed Northward into the Black Sea

Ryan and Pitman say, “When the ice caps of Britain, Scandinavia, Holland, northern Germany, Poland and Russia had started to recede, the “great lakes” on their southern margins became trapped in the depressions made by the weight of the ice. The peripheral buldge directed the upper reaches of the today’s Dniester, Dnieper, Don, and Volga rivers to flow away from the Black Sea and westward across Poland and over Berlin to the North Sea.”(Ryan & Pitman, 1999;p157) At this point in time, the direction of the great rivers were reversed and flowed northward into the North Sea.

As a result, the Black Sea was cut off from melt water from the great ice sheet in Northern Europe. The level of the Black Sea began to lower below the level of the external oceans. Just as Bulgarian scientist, Petko Dimitrov had formerly confirmed. Ryan and Pitman say, “By 5600 B.C. (7,600 B.P.), its shoreline lay 350 feet below the top of the Bosporus Dam. It was then, with the global ocean at 50 feet below today’s sea level, according to Fairbanks corals, that the trickle of salt water started, carrying larvae that would become the Black Sea’s first immigrants.”(Ryan & Pitman, 1999;p157)

The Breaching of the Bosporus Strait

There was a sudden powerful inflow of water through the Bosporus Strait into the Black Sea from the Mediterranean (Aegean) Sea. The Ocean water quickly inundated the Black Sea region. Pitman investigated in greater detail the mystery of this dramatic flooding.

Pitman believed the barrier in the Bosporus dam had been breached, but lacked direct evidence. He went to the Istanbul Technical University and consulted with several leading Turkish scientists. He was shown evidence of sea bottom cores that were taken in 1985 and 1986, when plans were progressing to build the Galata bridge across the Bosporus Strait. The Turkish scientists had come to the conclusion that the overlying dark gray sediments were no older than 7,500 years. This is based upon C-14 dating. Turkish navy had surveyed the sea bottom by echo sounding. They had also used seismic reflection profilers more powerful than the CHIRP to probe the configuration of the sediment fill in both the Dardenelles and the Bosporus. These surveys revealed, “that the bedrock surface tended to deepen as the survey progressed from the Aegean opening near Canakkale northward through the Bosporus.” This evidence verified that the Bosporus Strait had been breached. The channel had scoured into the underlying bedrock which consisted of contorted sandstone and shale of Devonian Age.

References

William Ryan & Walter Pitman, “Noah’s Flood” with the caption, “The New Scientific Discoveries About the Event That Changed History,” produced by Simon & Schuster, New York, 1999. All references are to be found in Ryan & Pitman’s book, “Noah’s flood.” Ross and Degens survey aboard the Atlantis 11 in 1969 is also referenced in this book.

last updated: February 27, 2013
Copyright © 2010 Genesis International Research Association

The Magnitude of the Black Sea Flood

Ryan and Pitman began a quest to determine the magnitude of this flood. How big was the flood, how long did it last, at what rate did the water rush in and the lake rise, and how rapidly must one have fled to escape drowning? What was its hydraulic head at the outset of the flooding? How is it possible to measure the height, width, length and depth of the Bosporus opening?

They compared the Bosporus Strait as a dam similar to the giant Hoover Dam that impounded about ten cubic miles of water in its Lake Mead reservoir. They imagined cutting a gash through the dam from top to bottom. The water rushing through would be a summation of all the pressures from top to bottom. As the flood waters pour out, the surface level of Lake Mead continually drops. And the integrated pressures would drop accordingly. In a few days the lake waters would flow down through the Colorado River into the Pacific Ocean raising global sea level no more than a hundreth of an inch.

The imagined cutting a gash in the Bosporus Strait. The discharge of water would remain strong. There would be no drop in the head water feeding the flood. The waters impounded by the Mediterranean, the Atlantic, and all the interconnected oceans would be so vast. It would be infinite in its availability. They say, “Any enlargement of the opening of the dam would only increase the rate of inflow to the Black Sea, and the flow would slow only when the level of the Black sea rose to cover the inlet and decrease the effective height of the waterfall.”(Ryan & Pitman, 1999;p153)

They realized that isostatic adjustments of the earth’s crust throughout Europe in the last 12,000 years must be considered in order to understand the height of the Bosporus dam, the level of sea water relative to the level of water in the Black Sea at the time of the flood or when the dam broke lose.

References

William Ryan & Walter Pitman, “Noah’s Flood” with the caption, “The New Scientific Discoveries About the Event That Changed History,” produced by Simon & Schuster, New York, 1999. All references are to be found in Ryan & Pitman’s book, “Noah’s flood.” Ross and Degens survey aboard the Atlantis 11 in 1969 is also referenced in this book.

 

last updated: February 27, 2013
Copyright © 2010 Genesis International Research Association