Skip to Content

Origin and Histroy of the Universe

The origin and History of the universe has always been a mystery and a wonderment to man. What does Man really know about the universe of stars? How old is the universe? What great power brought the universe into existence? What is the history of the universe? What is the future of the universe?

How old is the Universe?

Has the universe of stars always been in existence or was there a particular time it came into being? Is the universe infinite or finite?

Darwinian Naturalists would like us to think that the universe has always existed. They contend that the only reality is to be found in matter. They have replaced God with a materialistic, naturalistic evolutionary theory that supposedly can explain all phenomena throughout the universe. The late astrophysicist Carl Sagan used to begin his television program, Cosmos” with the phrase, “All that has been or is or ever will be is to be found in matter.”

Creationists maintain that the universe came into existence by a creative act of God at a certain point in time. They say the great God of Heaven and Earth literally spoke the universe into existence by the power of His Word and that He continues to form, make and sustain the entire universe by His Almighty Power.

How old is the universe? The Bible says, “In the beginning God created the Heavens and the earth.” The Bible does not attach earth years to the beginning of the universe. Thus it is speculative for Man to set a definite age to the universe based upon earth years. However, there is in Man a desire to set certain ages for the universe.

Young Earth Creationists continue to strongly support a theory that the universe is about 6,000 to 8,000 years old. Whereas, Old Earth Creationists strongly support a theory that the universe is somewhere between 10 to 20 billion years old. These two theories will be analyzed later to determine which views are more scientifically and Biblically correct.

On the basis of modern astronomy there is strong evidence to verify the Biblical thesis that the universe is finite, this means it had a beginning, and that these two records are remarkably complimentary and compatible.

Secular Universe Theories

During the 20th Century, astronomers have formulated the following universe theories:

1. The Big Bang Universe Theory.

2. The Steady State Universe Theory

3. The Oscillating Universe Theory.

4. The Many World’s Universe Theory

The Big Bang Universe Theory

1. The Big Bang Universe Theory states that the universe began with a gigantic explosion sending particles of matter in all directions. As suns, planets, galaxies form they will travel farther and farther into space, and will expand indefinitely. The galaxies will not return to an hypothetical centre. Secular and Christian astro-physicists are saying that 99.97% of all matter in the universe was created suddenly in a split fraction of a second. This event is often referred to as a Big Bang Creation Event.
The Big Bang Creation event marked the beginning of the universe, of all matter, energy and cosmic space and time. It dramatically complements the Biblical creation event which says, “For He spoke and it came to be; He commanded and it stood firm” Psalm 33;9; and also in the Psalms, “By the word of the Lord were the heavens made, their starry host by the breath of His mouth.” (33:6), and, “He commanded and they were created” (148:5).

The Big Bang Creation event is the only universe theory that is currently supported by science. This theory was first postulated in 1922 by the Russian mathematician Alexandre Freedman. He predicted an expanding universe. Seven years later the British astronomer Edwin Hubbell verified this prediction by observing that light is red shifted. When expansion is coupled with the 1968 Hawking-Penrose singularity theorems, it leads, via time-reversed extrapolations to a universe which began at a point in time, in the finite past. Before this event, the universe literally did not exist. Then in 1965, the Bell lab researchers, Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson made a most important discovery. It was the discovery of the “Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation” that exists throughout the universe. This was a visage of an earlier, very hot, and very dense state of the universe.1 This latter discovery remained fairly conclusive, but somewhat speculative and needed more definite confirmation.

In 1989, NASA launched into space the Background Explorer (Cobe) Satellite together with the Hubble Telescope. On April 24, 1992, astronomers made one of the greatest discoveries of all times. This great discovery confirmed two essential ingredients of the Big Bang Theory. First, it confirmed that the universe is expanding and galaxies are moving farther away from an original starting point. Second, it confirmed that there is a “Cosmic Microwave Background” present throughout the universe. It is the radiation left over from the Big Bang Creation Event. As a result, some of the leading astronomers made the following comments:

1. Dr. Stephen Hawking, an avowed evolutionist said, “It is a discovery of the century, if not of all time.”

2. Astrophysicist, Dr. Turner said, “They have found the Holy Grail of the Universe.”

3. Dr. Fredrick Burnham said, “The idea that God created the universe is a more respectable theory today than at any other time.”

4. Dr. Joseph Silk said, “We are viewing the birth of the universe.”

5. Dr. George Smoot said, “If you are religious, it is as if you are looking at God.”

6. Dr. Jeffery Burbage, an avowed atheist said, “It is as if astronomers have rushed off to join the First Church of Christ of the Big Bang.” 2

In a series of papers published between 1966 -70, astrophysicists Stephen Hawking, George Ellis and Roger Penrose have shown that Einstein’s Theory of Relativity is in complete agreement with the Big Bang Theory. They have suggested that the general Theory of Relativity implies that the universe sprang into existence from literally nothing, at least not physical.3

Naturalists do not like the Big Bang Theory because it implies a beginning . If there is a beginning, then there must be a BEGINNER.

The Steady State Universe Theory

2. The Steady State Universe Theory maintains that matter has always been in existence and that there was never a beginning. It states that all the galaxies in the universe have always been expanding at a constant rate, and that new matter is constantly being generated, so that the density of the universe always remains constant. Consequently, there is always the same amount of matter in a given space at any time.

This theory does not explain the origin of matter or how new matter is being constantly created or generated. The 1965 discovery of the “cosmic background radiation” dealt this theory a fatal blow. By the early 1970’s this theory was abandoned by leading astronomers.

The Oscillating Universe Theory

3. The Oscillating Universe theory maintains that the universe has continually experienced infinite cycles of expansion and contraction. There was never an origin to the universe and matter has always existed. It claims that all matter, found in galaxies, is flying apart from a previously compacted mass. The galaxies will eventually slow down, stop and begin to contract under the gravitational pull of its parts. In other words, all the galaxies will return to their original starting place. Ultimately all matter will be come so condensed that it will explode once again. In the process matter is neither created or destroyed, but merely rearranged.

This theory does not explain the origin of matter and what may have caused the original explosion. It was abandoned in the 1980’s, when physicist Allan Guth demonstrated that “entropy” suggests that the energy available to do the work would decrease with each succeeding oscillation cycle. Presumably the universe would have reached a nullifying equilibrium long ago and all the matter would have fallen into one big sluggish conglomeration. Leading astronomers have more recently discovered that the universe has only a fraction, about one fifth, of the mass required to create contraction in the first place.

The Many Worlds Universe Theory

4. Evolutionary Naturalists have now come out with, “The Many Worlds Universe Theory” to counteract the Big Bang Theory that the Universe had a beginning, which implies a Beginner. This theory maintains that matter has always existed. It is designed to explain how the universe came into existence by natural means.

This theory arose to counteract the views of leading astronomers and physicists who are beginning to realize that there has to be a super intellect or God out there who has created and made the universe with such great accuracy. They are discovering that there is “a high degree of fine tuning throughout the universe” that is extremely exact and sensitive. This fine tuning could never have occurred by chance, but as result of Intelligent Design.

The Many Worlds Universe Theory maintains that there is no beginning to matter. They believe the Universe is self generating. They postulate millions and millions of different universes or worlds, each with a different dial setting of the fundamental ratios and constants, so that in fact, the right dial was bound to turn up by sheer chance resulting in the generation of a new universe. They maintain our universe and life on this earth happened to be the lucky one.

This theory admits, there is no scientific evidence for any other universes (worlds), Thus, they postulate that other universes (worlds) are by definition causally inaccessible to our own world. Thus, they cannot be detected by scientific evidence for their existence except that they render probable otherwise vastly improbable events.4 In reality, they have replaced God, the Great Intelligent Designer and Creator, with their atheistic, naturalistic Many Worlds Universe Theory.

The Naturalist Evolutionary Universe Theory is based upon the premise that our universe came into existence with an appearance of design by a purposeless, meaningless, unintelligent, random process. God is not necessary because evolution did it all. Design throughout the universe is only apparent, not real. This premise is clearly stated by Julian Huxley, the grandson of Alduous Huxley, who was a close associate of Charles Darwin. At the University of Chicago’s centennial celebration of the publication of Darwin’s book, “Origin of the Species” in 1959, Huxley claimed that the entire cosmos (universe) came into being and continues to exist under the direction of natural selection operating on chance processes. This theory is in reality a “Creation Story.”

To date, not one of their naturalistic universe theories have any solid scientific support. Inorder to believe in these theories, it is necessary to believe in a religious humanistic philosophy rather than the evidences of science.

Creationist Universe Theories

The Creationist Universe Theory is based upon the premise that an all powerful Creator God has created, formed and made the universe with exquisite design according to an intelligent, purposeful, meaningful plan. This theory is in reality a “Creation Story.”

There are two main Biblically based universe theories namely; 1, The Young Earth Universe Theory and 2. The Old Earth Universe Theory. It is important to know the pros and cons of both theories.

The Young Earth Universe Theory

The Young Earth Universe Theory maintains the Universe is about 6,000 to 10,000 years old. All Creation took place within a six day period. Each Creation Day is considered to be a literal 24 hour interval. They maintain that the earth and a universe of space and time was created on the First Day. The only material object that was created, on this First day, was the Earth. The sun, moon and stars, which includes the vast universe of stars and galaxies, were created on the Fourth Day of Creation.

One of the founders of the Creation Science Movement John Whitcomb6 says that on the First Day of Creation, “God created the earth and the entire universe — of outer space — which was totally empty and therefore dark, until a temporary localized light was created to begin the day/night cycle. At this stage the earth was perfect but incomplete. God created the earth waste and void. Then on the Fourth Day God created the sun, moon and stars (including planets, etc.). They were designed for illumination (with light rays created together in a fully functioning universe), for a clock/calendar system, and for signs.” This theory is, in reality, an Earth centred Universe theory in that the entire universe of stars were created with the earth as it’s central object.

This theory rejects the conventional sciences of astronomy and of geology, because they both uphold a universe that is older than 6,000 to 10,000 years. Both these sciences are labeled as evolutionary based and are not to be trusted. Those who uphold a Young Earth Universe Theory have developed their own science based upon a Young Universe scenario called, “Creation Science.” As a result, the Big Bang Universe Theory is rejected by Creation Science. The science of astronomy does not support the Young Earth Universe Theory. Two Young Earth creationists Paul Nelson and John M. Reynolds admit, “Natural science at the moment seems to overwhelmingly point to an old cosmos. Though creationist scientists have suggested some evidences for a recent cosmos, none are widely accepted as true. It is safe to say that most recent creationists are motivated by religious concerns.” 7

The Old Earth Universe Theory

The Old Earth Universe Theory maintains that the universe is old and that it could very well be 10 to 20 billion years old as advocated by the science of astronomy. It states that the material universe of galaxies including the earth, space and time were created during the First Day of Creation as the Bible says, “In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth” (Genesis 1:1). Then we read in proverbs 8:22-23 which describes the time before God began His work of old, “The Lord possessed me at the beginning of His way, before His works of old. I have been established from everlasting before there was ever an earth” (Proverbs 8:22 – 23). The term BEGINNING could literally mean millions of earth years. In other words, the Bible implies the universe to be old.

This theory maintains that the universe of matter, space and time were created at the Big Bang Creation Event which occurred at the very beginning of the First Day of Creation. However, many additional acts of creation were conducted following this event that have continued throughout the entire Six Day period.

For instance, fragile and short lived comets are believed to have been created by God towards the end of the Sixth Day, just prior to the Creation of Man.

Each Creation Day is considered to be a long period of time extending into many millions of years. This is in keeping with the definition of the Hebrew word YOM which is translated as our word DAY. Both Young and Old Earth Creationists agree that yom has the following three definitions: 1) a period of time; 2) a period of daylight; and 3) a twenty four hour interval. By comparing scripture with scripture the Old Earth Creationists believe that the first two definitions pertain to the Creation Week, whereas the third definition relates to the Work Week.8

This theory recognizes the Bible as being the only Holy Book in the world that gives scientifically accurate information about the origin and history of the universe. The word heavens literally means the universe of stars. This is confirmed in Psalms 8:3-4 which says, “When I consider your heavens, the work of your fingers, the moon and stars, which you have set in place, what is man that you are mindful of him.” From the vantage point of the earth looking into space, one sees the moon and the stars. Many of the stars are distant galaxies. Prior to the invention of the telescope, man was only able to count about 3000 stars. Today with the aid of powerful telescopes man has been able to see multi-millions of stars throughout the universe. God said to Abraham, “Look at the heavens and count the stars, if indeed you can count them, so shall your offspring be” (Genesis 15:5). Then God compares the number of Abraham’s descendants to the stars of heaven and to the sand grains upon the sea shore (Genesis 22:17). We then read in Psalms 147:4, “He determines the number of the stars and calls them all by their names. Great is our Lord and mighty in power and His understanding has no limit.” This theory accepts the Big Bang Theory as being complementary and compatible with the Biblical and the scientific records.

A Creation Universe Theory

God’s Plan and Purpose: God created the universe with a plan and purpose in mind. He, first, formulated a plan which is set out in Genesis I:3, “Let there be light.” This is a plan. For instance, we could say, “Let us go to New York.” This is a plan, but we need a purpose or reason to go, then we must perform work to get there. When we get to New York we can say, “And it was so”. Likewise, God created a universe of light. Every star, moon, planet either emits or reflects light which has involved work. Then God could say, “and there was light” (Genesis 1:3b).

This plan is further expressed by the Hebrew word “KUN,” which is translated “establish” in Isaiah 45:18, “For thus says the Lord, who created the Heavens, who is God, who formed the earth and made it, who has established (kun) it — I am the Lord and there is no other.” This word kun means to come forth with a plan with a purpose in mind.9

God’s purpose for creating this vast universe of light is ultimately for His glory and honour and that all of His created beings, angelic and human, would see the infinite greatness of His mighty works and would glorify Him. We read in Revelations 4:11, “You are worthy , O Lord, to receive honor and glory and power, for you created all things, and by your will they exist and were created.” We also read in Isaiah 43:7, “Everyone who is called by my name, whom I have created for My glory; I have formed him, yes I have made him.”

God’s Work: “In the beginning God created (bara) the Heavens and the Earth” (Genesis 1:1). The Hebrew word “BARA” means to create. Primarily, it means to create something new out of nothing to fulfill a certain purpose. Secondly, it means to create something new out of previously existing matter. In other words, the original Big Bang Creation event would have witnessed the creation of 99.97% of all matter. Subsequent creations would have witnessed the creation of each star and galaxy from matter that would have been previously created at the Big Bang.9

On the basis of the science of astronomy, there is reason to believe that the Universe began with a sudden Big Bang Creation event somewhere between 10 to 20 billion years ago. This marks the beginning of the universe of matter, energy, space and time.

The creation of matter would have emanated in an orderly fashion from the mouth of the Creator, who is no other than the Lord Jesus Christ. Every particle of matter was sent forth by God the Son upon a previously planned trajectory orbit set out by God the Father the great Intelligent Designer of the universe. This concept is supported by the following passages, “By the Word of the Lord were the heavens made, and all the host of them by the breath of His mouth” (Psalm 33:6). He spoke and it was done; He commanded and it stood fast” (Psalm 33:9). “He commanded and they were created (Psalm 148:56).

After the Big Bang at a certain predetermined time, the Creator would have then conducted billions of separate and successive acts of creation where each galaxy and each star within the galaxy were created according to a preconceived plan. Once a star was created it would have been sent forth on a predetermined trajectory orbit within the galaxy controlled by God’s ordinances or laws. Each galaxy in turn would have been sent upon a certain trajectory orbit within the universe. Each galaxy and star would be controlled by God’s highly sophisticated supernatural computer system, where God would have complete control of every galaxy, star, planet, moon, comet, asteroid. etc. This concept is supported by Isaiah 48;13 which says, ” My right hand has stretched out the heavens, when I call to them, they stand up together.” In other words, if the Great God of heaven and Earth is able to change the trajectory orbits or speed of any star by his commands, it means He has ultimate control of the universe.

For skeptics who may question whether Jesus Christ was the true Creator of the universe, we read in John 1:1-3, “In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was with God in the beginning. Through Him all things were made; without Him nothing was made that has been made.” Then John 1:14 clarifies who the Word was, “The Word became flesh and lived for a while among us. We have seen His glory, the glory of the one and only Son who came from the Father, full of grace and truth.” Then we read in Colossians 1:16-17, “For by Him all things were created in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible — He is before all things, and in Him all things hold together.” God the Father and His son Jesus Christ are transcendent above the universe. The universe of stars is totally dependent upon God for its existence.


The Future Fate of the Universe

What is the future fate of the universe? The Bible says that the universe is steadily growing older like a garment of clothing. We read in Hebrews 1:10-12, “In the beginning, O Lord, you laid the foundations of the earth, and the heavens are the work of your hands. They shall perish, but you remain; they will all wear out like a garment. You will roll them up like a robe; like a garment they will be changed. But you remain the same, and your years will never end.” In other words the entire universe is aging and will eventually wear out like a garment of clothing. Only God remains changeless, whereas all creation is undergoing continual change.

There is a future day when the entire universe which includes the earth is going to be destroyed by fire. God judged the world of man about 4,500 years ago by water by sending the world wide Flood of Noah. There is a future judgement that will not only affect the Earth, but also the entire universe. We read in 2 Peter 3:6-7, “By water also the world of that time was deluged and destroyed. By the same word the present heavens and earth are reserved for fire, being kept for the day of judgement of ungodly men.” The Bible then elaborates upon the future judgement as follows, “But the day of the Lord will come like a thief. The heavens will disappear with a roar; the elements will be destroyed by fire, and the earth and everything in it will be laid bear. Since everything will be destroyed in this way, what kind of people ought you to be? You ought to live holy and godly lives as you look forward to the day of God and speed its coming. That day will bring about the destruction of the heavens by fire, and the elements will melt with fervent heat. But in keeping with his promise we are looking for a new heaven and a new earth, the home of righteousness.” At this future time all evidences of sin and the works of man will be destroyed forever. God will at this time rejuvenate the earth and the heavens (universe) to the place it was in the beginning.

The first and the second heavens, which relate to the earth and the universe, will be completely free of sin and will be a place of righteousness. We read in Revelations 21: 1-2, “Then I saw a new heaven and a new earth; for the first heaven and the first earth were passed away, and there was no longer any sea. I saw the Holy City, the new Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God, prepared as a bride beautifully dressed for her husband. And I heard a loud voice from the throne saying, “Now the dwelling of God is with men. and He will live with them. They will be His people and God Himself will be with them and be their God. He will wipe every tear from their eyes. There will be no more death or mourning or crying or pain, for the old order of things has passed away” He who was seated upon the throne said, “I am making everything new!”


1. Stephen C. Meyer, The Return of the God Hypothesis, Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, Vol.XI No.1/2, 1999 p. 9
2. Hugh Ross, God, Astronomy & the Big Bang Explosion, Genesis International Research Luncheon, Calgary, Alberta, Sept. 29, 1993.
5. Robert F. DeHaan & John L. Weister, The Cambrian Explosion: The Fossil Record & Intelligent Design, Touchstone, July/August 1999, p.65.
6. John C. Whitcombe, The Early Earth, Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, Michigan, Feb 1989, p 38.
7. Paul Nelson & Reynolds, Three Views on Creation and Evolution, Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, MI, 1999, p.49.
8. H. Don Daae, Bridging The Gap: The First 6 Days, Genesis International Research Publishers, 1989, p 189-192.
9. Daae, p.193 – 199.

last updated: March 8, 2013
Copyright © 2010 Genesis International Research Association